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The following selections from the Tdin Bó Cúailnge, 
together with the critical notes and vocabulary, were 
originally published by the late Professor Strachan 
in 1903, in numbers 158 to 167 of Irisleabhar na 
Gaedhilge. It was his intention, frustrated by his 
sudden lamented death, to re-edit them as a text- 
book for the School of Irish Learning. For this 
purpose Mrs. R. I. Best had prepared a copy, in 
which the vocabularies were arranged in alphabetical 
order at the end of the extracts. This copy was 
found among Strachan' s papers, and handed to me 
by his widow for publication. It contained no cor- 
rections or additions, though, if he had lived to 
bring out this little book himself, Strachan would 
probably have normalised the spelling still further, 
and revised some of the notes and entries in the 
vocabulary. The whole is now printed without 
any alterations except in details. Mr. Best and 
Dr. Bergin have shared with me the task of seeing 
it through the press. 


June 12th, JQ08, 


The documents in the Irish tongue existing in 
manuscripts prior to 900 a.d., though invaluable for 
the study of the ancient language, have no literary 
interest. With rare exceptions, these remains con- 
sist of longer or shorter Irish notes on Latin works 
studied by Irish scholars. Fortunately this does 
not represent the whole of Old-Irish literature. 
Many ancient texts, both religious and secular, are 
preserved in mss. of a later date. Often the old 
tales have been retold in language of a later date ; 
not infrequently, however, the old language has 
been preserved with a slight Middle-Irish disguise, 
which for the most part can be easily stripped off. 
Of the old Sagas, the most famous is the Táin Bo 
Cúailnge. It is found in a number of mss., of which 
the most important and the most easily accessible 
are the Lebor na hUidre (LU.), the Yellow Book 
of Lecan (YBL.), and the Book of Leinster (LL.). 
In LL. the tale is retold in later language ; the 
version in LU. and YBL. is, apart from some later 

vi editor's preface 

additions, essentially Old- Irish. The texts of LU. 
and YBL. have been copied from a common original, 
which is more faithfully represented by YBL,, not- 
withstanding that that ms. is considerably later than 

It seemed to me that a series of selections from 
this text would be useful both as providing an 
interesting vehicle for the study of Old-Irish and 
as an easy introduction to the Saga literature. In 
the following extracts I have tried as far as possible 
to remove the Middle-Irishisms which have crept 
into the text, and to restore the language of the 
eighth century. As both mss. are easily accessible 
in facsimile, it has seemed unnecessary to give all 
the mss. readings. Mere orthographical changes 
have been made silently ; only the more serious 
changes in the language are noted at the foot of 
the page. 

j. s. 










FARED ABROAD. (Part I.) . . . . 13 


FARED ABROAD. (Part II.) . . . . l8 



VIII. How CUCHULINN slew Etarcomol. (Part I.) ^ 

IX. How Cuchulinn slew Etarcomol. (Part 11.) 37 

X. How Cuchulinn slew Nadcrantail . . 40 

Glossary 47 


[LU. 59^-59^15 = YBL. 18^30-19^37.] 

"Altae-som ém, ,, ol Fergus, "la athair ocus la 
máthair ocond dairgdig i mMaig Murthemne. 
Adfessa dó airscéla na macraide i nEmain. Ar 
bíit trí cóicait 1 mace and," ol Fergus, "oc chichiu. 
Is amlaid domel Conchobor a fiaith : trian 2 ind lái 
oc décsin 3 na macraide, a thrian n-aill oc imbirt 
fidchille, a thrian n-aill oc óul 4 chormae, con-did- 
gaib 5 cotlud de. Cia bemmi-ni for longais, ni fil i 
n'Ere óclaig bas amru," ol Fergus. 

"Guidid Cúchulaind dia máthair didiu a lécud 
dochom na macraide. * Ni regae,' ol a máthair, 

1 choecait LU., choecaid YBL. 

2 YBL. a t[h]rian, where the possessive anticipates the 
following gen. 

3 descin LU., with Mid.-Ir. change of cs to sc; but YBL. 
has decsain. 

* mss. ol with contraction. The earlier form of the word 
was óol, the later ol. 

5 mss. conidgaib, with change of pretonic nd to n. 



4 con - dit- roib cóimthecht di ánrodaib Ulad.' 
1 Rochfan lim-sa anad fri sodain,' ol Cúchulaind. 
1 Inchoisc-siu dam-sa ced leth atá 1 Emain.' ' Fo 
thuaid amne,' ol a máthair, ' ocus is doraid a n-ude,' 
ol si, ' atá Slíab Fúait etruib.' ■ Dobér indass fair,' 
ol Cúchulaind, ' ammin/ 

"Téit ass iarom, ocus a sciath slissen laiss ocus a 
bunsach ocus a lorg áne ocus a líathróit. Focerded 2 
a bunsaich 3 riam con-da-gaibed ar loss resiu dorot- 
sad a bun for lár. 

"Téit cosna maccu iarom cen naidm a fóesama 
form. Ar ní téged 4 nech cuccu inna cluchemag co 
n-arnastae a fóesam. Ní fitir-som aní-sin, ' No-n- 
sáraigedar in mace/ ol Follomon mace Conchobuir, 
' sech rafetammar is di Ultaib dó. Arguntis do 5 
benaid foo.' 

" Focerdat a trí cóictea bunsach fair, ocus arsis- 
sétar isin sciath slissen uli leis-seom. Focerdat 

1 The rel. form of atá is regularly fil ; there is, however, in 
the O. Ir. glosses nothing to show that atá may not have been 
used in the above type of sentence. 

2 mss. focherded. In O. Ir. a pretonic prep, aspirated only 
if the form was relative. 

3 mss. bunsach. 

4 theged LU., theiged YBL. In O. Ir. ni does not 
aspirate unless there is an infixed neut. pron., e.g. ni ceil he 
conceals not, ni cheil he conceals it not» In Mid. Ir. ni 

5 Arguntis do LU. is obscure, and probably corrupt. YBL. 
has arguittis. 


dano a líathróiti uli fair-seom. Ocus no-s-gaib-seom 
each n-óenHíathróit inna ucht. Focerdat dano a 2 
trí cóictea lorg n-áne fair. Araclich-som connách- 
ráncatar, 3 ocus gabais airbir diib fria aiss. 

" Riastarthae imbi-seom i sudiu. Inda 4 )at ba 
tindorcun as-n-ort each foltne inna chenn lasa 
comérge conérracht. Inda lat ba óibell tened bói 
for each óenimnu. 'Iadais indala 5 súií connárbo 
lethiu indaas cró snáthaite. Asoilgg alaili co mbo 
móir béolu midchúaich. Doérig dia glainíni corrici 
a hóu. Asoilg a béolu coa inairdriuch co mbo 
ecnae a ginchróes. 6 Atrecht in lúan láith assa 

" Benaid fona maccu iarom. Doscara cóicait 
macc diib resiú 7 rístais dorus nEmna. Forrumai 
nónbur diib torom-sa 8 ocus Chonchobur ; bámmar 

1 cech óen LTJ., each oen YBL. 2 mss. an. 

3 conachrangadar YBL., conachrancatár hé LU. The latter 
represents a very common type of corruption in LU. At the 
time when the MS. was written, the infixed pron. had begun to 
make way for the Mod. Ir. postfixed pron. Accordingly we 
often find the postfixed pron. added where there is already an 
infixed pron. 

4 mss. indar. 5 Mid. Ir. indara LU. 

6 mss. in-, aspirated g being left unwritten. At 79^41 LU. 
has ginchroes where LL. has inchroes. 

7 mss. siu. 

Hhoromsa LU., thoramsa YBL. In Mid. Ir. the initial 
consonant of prep. + suffixed pron. is often aspirated, e.g. 
•chucu, form, thrit. This change had begun in the later 
O. Ir. glosses. 



oc imbirt Rdchille. Lingid-som didiu tarsin fid- 
chill i ndegaid ind nónbuir. 

"Gaibid Conchobor a rigid. 1 'Ní maith airrailter 
in macrad,' ol Conchobor. ' Deithbir dam-sa, á 
phopa Chonchobuir/ olsé. ' Do-s-roacht do chluchiu 
óm thaig óm athair ocus óm máthair, ocus ní maith 
ro-m-bátar frim.' 2 'Cia th'ainm-siu ? 7 ol Conchobor. 
1 Setantae mace Sualtaim atomchomnicc-se, 3 ocus 
mace Dechtire do fethar-su. Ní bu dóig mo chon- 
fere sund/ ' Ced ná ronass do foessam-su dano 
forsna niaccu Y ol Conchobor. i Ní fetar-sa anisin, 7 
ol Cuchulaind. ' Gaib it láim mo ioesom airriu 4 
didiu.' ( Atdaimiu/ 5 ol Conchobor. 

6( Lasodain doella-som forsin macraid sechnon in 
tige. f Ced tái dano dóib innossa?' ol Conchobor. 
* Co ronastae a foesom form-sa dano,' ol Cuchulaind. 
'Gaib it láim didiu, 7 ol Conchobor. 'Atdaimiu, 75 
ol Cuchulaind. 

"Lotar uli isa cluchemag iarom. Ocus atarach- 
tatar in maicc hi roslassa and. Fo-s-ráthatar a 
mummi 7 a n-aiti." 

1 mss. rig. 

2 Before this YBL. has cia diata in macc-so. 

3 atomchomnaicse LU., atomcomainmsea YBL. 

4 mss. airtho. In Mid. Ir. th spreads widely in fern, and pi. 
of such pronominal forms, e.g. esti, estib = O. Ir. essi, essib, 
fortho = 0. Ir. forru, etc. 

5 In the former instance both MSS. have atmu ; in the latter 
LU. has atmu, YBL. atamu. Atdaimiu, from ad-d-daimiu, 
should probably be restored. 



how cuchulinn brought conchobar from 
the Field of Battle. 

[LIT. 59^36-60^22 = YBL. 19510-48.] 

" Bói imnisse chatha etar Ultu ocus Eogan mac 
nDurthacht. Tiagait Ulaid don chath. Fácabar- 
som inna chotlud. Maitti for Ultu. Fácabar Con- 
chobor ocus Cuscraid Mend Machae ocus sochuide 
mór olchenae. D-an-iuschi-seom 1 a ngol. Sinithi 
iarom com-memdatar in dá liic robátar imbi. Fiad 
Bricre 2 ucut dorónad," ol Fergus. "Atraig laso- 
dain. Cotriccim-se friss i ndorus ind liss os 3 mé 
athgóite. ' Fuit ! Dia do bethu ! a phopa Fergus,'* 
olsé. c Cate Conchobor ?' ' Ni fetar-sa,' olmé. 

"Téit ass iarom. Ba dorchae ind adaig. Fóbair 
a n-ármach. Conaccai ara chimin in fer, ocus leth 

1 dofúsciseom LU., dosuisceosom YBL. 

2 mss. hi fiadnaise (fiadnaisi YBL.) Bricriu. But Bricriu 
cannot be genitive. The easiest assumption is that fiad has 
been replaced by the equivalent hifiadnise, and the dat. Bricre 
{cf. 'Ere) corrupted to Bricriu as in other places. 

3 mss. ocus. 

4 Fer u LU., Fergais YBL., cf. Fergus LU. 58^4, but 
Jerguis LU. 57^3. The form Ferguis seems due to the 
analogy of stems. 


a chinn fair, ocus Icth fir aili for a muin. * Congna 
lem, a Chúchulaínd/ olsé. * Ro-m-bith, ocus tuccus 
leth mo bráthar for 1 mo muin. Ber sist lim/ ' Ni 
bér,' olsé. 2 Lasodain foceirt in n-aire dó. Foceird- 
som de. Immasínithar dóib. Doscarthar Cúchu- 
laind. Co ciialae ni, in mboidb dinaib colnaib 3 : 
1 Olc damnae láich fil and fo chossaib aurddrag.' 
Lasodain f-an-érig 4 Cúchulaind ocus benaid a chenn 
de cosind luirg áne ocus gaibid immáin 5 líathróite 
ríam darsa mag. 6 

11 ' In fil mo phopa Conchobor isind ármaig-se ? y 
Frisgair-side dó. Téit cuci con-didn-accai issin 
chlud, ocus robói ind ur 7 imbi de each leith dia 
díchlith. ' Cid dia tánac 8 isa n-ármag,' 9 ol Con- 
chobor, 'co ndechais uathbás and?' T-an-ócaib 
asin chlud lasodain. Ní turcébad seisser linni di 
thrénferaib Ulad ni bad chalmu. Tair reonn don 
tig ucut,' ol 10 Conchobor, * co ndernae 11 tenid dam 

1 mss. ar, with Mid. Ir. confusion of ar and for. 

2 orse LU., the later form. 

3 mss. collaib. 

4 fónérig LU. : in Mid. Ir. the infixed pron. -an- tends to be 
replaced by -n-, which in O. Ir. is used after ni. 

5 mss. imman. 

6 darinmag LU., with transformation of neut. art. due to 
loss of neut. gend. ; darinnarmaig YBL., with replacement of 
ace. by dat. 

7 mss. uir, with confusion of nom. and ace. 

8 tudchad-so YBL. 

■' isinnarmag LU., isinnarmaigh YBL. 
10 mss. ar. n co ndernae — Conchobor om. LU. 


and.' Adsói-seom 1 tenid 2 móir dó. ' Maith dano/ 
ol 3 Conchobor, ' dian-dam-thised 4 mucc fonaithe 
robad-am-beó. , ' Rega-sa 5 con-da-tuc,' ol Cuchu- 
laind. Téit ass iarom. Conaccai in fer ocond 
fulucht i m-medón ind feda, indala 6 lám do cona 
gaisciud indi, 7 in lám aile 8 oc fuiniu in tuircc. Ba 
mór a úathmaire ind fir. F-an-opair-som arapae 
ocus dobeir a chenn ocus a muicc lais. Loingid 
Conchobor iarsin in tore. * Tiagam diar tig/ ol 
Conchobor. Conrecat 9 fri Cuscraid mac Conchobuir. 
Bátar dano tromgona for suidiu. 10 Dobeir Cuchulaind 
fora muin. Dolotar iarom a triur co Emain Machae." 

1 ms. ataiseom. 

2 ms. thenid, with aspiration of the object, which begins 
already in later O. Ir. ; in the Wurzburg glosses it is found 
only in each. 

3 mss. or. 

4 diánomthísad LU., dianamthiasad YBL. 

5 mss. ragsa. 

6 mss. in dara. 

7 mss. inti, the Mid.-Ir. form. 

8 mss. naill. 

9 condrecat LU., cotrecat YBL. 
10 fairside LU., fairsidi YBL. 




[LU. 6oíz39-6o£i8 = YBL. 20^11-20^30.] 

"Rofetammar 1 ém in ngillae-sin," ol Conall Cer- 
nach, " ocus ni messa de 2 fria fiss, is daltae dun. 
Nípu chían iarsin gnim adchuaid Fergus indossa 
condergéni-som 3 bét 4 n-aile. 

"Dia forgéni Cauland cerdd óigedacht do Chon- 
chobur, asbert Cauland iarom ná bad sochuide 
noberthae cucci, air nípu du thír ná ferunn do a fuirec 
dorigni, acht do thorud a dá lám ocus a tharnguir. 
Luid Conchobor iarom ocus cóicae carpat imbi do 
neoch ba sruithem ocus ba airegdam 5 inna caurad. 

" Adell Conchobor laiss iarom a cluichemag. Ba 
bés dano dó dogrés a n-adall ocus a tadall oc techt 

1 rafetammár LU., rofeadarsa YBL. 

2 messaite LU., mesaide YBL., with Mid.-Ir. orthography. 

3 mss. condernasom ; -dernus appears already Ml. 39^11, 
-derni Ml. 128^3. 

4 beit YBL. I have no evidence of the gender of the word, 
so that it is uncertain whether aile or aili is right, as in our 
mss. final e and final i are confused. 

; ba haeregdu LU., basairegdu YBL. In later Irish the 
superlative is replaced by the comparative. 


ocus oc tuidecht do chuindchid a bendachtae cosna 
maccu. Conaccai iarom Coinculaind oc áin líath- 
róite frisna trí cóictea 1 mace, ocus birt a róena forru. 
Intan ba n-áin 2 phuill dognitis, rolinad-som 3 in poll 
dia líathróitib, ocus ni cumcaitis in maicc a irchlige. 4 
Intan batir 5 héseom uli dobidctis in poll aracliched- 
som a óinur conná léged cid óen-líathróit ind. 
Intan ba n-imthascrad 6 dognitis, dorascrad-som na 
trí cóictea mace a óinur, ocus ni comricced imbi- 
seom lin a thascartha. 7 Intan dano ba n-imdirech 
dognitis, do-sn-érged-som 8 uli co mbitis tornocht, 9 

1 mss. coectu. In Mid. Ir. texts -u, the ending of masc. o 
stems, spreads to consonant stems. 

2 mss. ba hain. Already in later O. Ir. there is a tendency 
to omit relative n, where it is obligatory in the older language 
— a tendency which increases more and more in Mid. Ir. 

3 nolinadsom YBL. In Mid. Ir. ro- and no- are much con- 
fused, so that the mss. are very untrustworthy guides ; here 
rolinad finds supports in the following dorascrad. 

4 ersclaige LU., ersclaide YBL., with confusion of aspirated 
g and d, which had fallen together in sound. 

5 For batir in a relative sense cf. Wb. 5^14. 

6 mss. nimtrascrad. But in O. Ir. the enclitic form of 
doscaraim is -tascraim. In Mid. Ir. trascraim r has come 
from the following syllable : cf. Mid. Ir. clóemchlóim / change, 
= O. Ir. -cóimchldim. 

7 mss. trascartha. 

8 leg. do-s-rerged-som he was able to strip them (?). 

9 mss. tornochta, with the fem. or neut. form, as not infre- 
quently in this text. In Mid. Ir. the n. pi. masc. of the 
predicative adj. commonly has the old form, e.g., it bronaig, 
while the attributive adj. has commonly a, e.g. fir mora. For 


ocus nicon^ructis-som immurgu cid a delg assa 
brot-som nammá. 

u Ba amrae la Conchobor anisin. Asbert-side 
in-etarbiad a gnímu acht tísed 2 dóib co áis ferdatad. 
Asbert each etar-da-biad. Asbert Conchobor fri 
Coinculaind : ' Tair lem,' olsé, i dond fleid dia- 
tíagam, ót óigi.' 3 ' Nída 4 sáithech dom chluichiu 
beós, a phopa Chonchobuir,' ol in gillae. ' Rega-sa^ 
i far 6 ndíaid.' 

" O ráncatar uli iarom dond fleid, asbert Cauland 
fri Conchobor. ' In frithalid nech i far 6 ndíaid ? r 
olsé. l Náthó/ ol Conchobor. Nírbo chuman laiss 
dál a daltai inna déad. • Attá árchu lem-sa/ ol 
Culand ; ' teora 7 slabrada fair ocus triar cacha slab- 

pi. tornocht cf. YBL. 50^33. The group cht resists palatali- 
zation. According to Father O'Leary, Aesop iii., the voc. of 
bocht is bocht, with ch broad and t slender. 

1 mss. nochon- the Mid. Ir. form. 

2 tis, with mark of contraction, LU., tiacht YBL, with 
erroneous expansion of tis. 

3 dáig tóegi LU., fobit adoegi YBL. The variants may- 
be most simply explained from an original ot digi since thou 
art a guest. 

4 nimda LU., nidom Y r BL. ; nita or nida, is O. Ir. for I ant 

s ragatsa LU., regad YBL. rega is the O. Ir. form, regat 
or ragat the Mid.-Ir. form. 

G mss. infar, with in- analogically restored after the Mid.-Ir» 

7 mss. tri. In Mid. Ir. the fern, teora gives place to the 
masc. and neut. tri. 


raide. 1 Léicther 2 de dáig ar n-indile ocus ar cethrae 
ocus dúntar in less.' 

" Tic in gillae fosodin. F-an-opair 3 in cú. Nofe- 
thed-som a cluiche colléic. Focerded a líathróit 
ocus focerded a loirg inna diaid, co mbenad in 
líathróit. Ní bo móo in band oldaas a chéle. Ocus 
foceird a bunsaig inna ndiaid, con-da-gaibed re 
tothim. Ocus ni rothairmesc a cluche imbi, ce 
rodbói 4 in cú occa ascnam. Torbáis Conchobor 
ocus a muinter anísin, connárbo eter 5 leó a nglúas- 
acht. Inda 6 leo ní faircbitis i mbethaid ara ciunn cid 
ersloicthe in less. Intan didiu dolluid 7 in cu cucci- 
som, foceird-seom úad a líathróit ocus a loirg, ocus 
frisindle in coin cona dib lámaib, .i. dobeir indala 8 
láim dó fri ubull brágat in chon ; dobeir araili fria chul ; 
bentai frisin coirthe inna arrad, 9 co sescaind each 
ball de a lethe. (Mad iar n-arailiu, immurgu, is a 
líathróit rolá-som inna béolu cor-ruc a inathar trit.) 

1 LU. adds : a h-Espain dosfucad he zvas brought from 
Spain, where the Mid. Ir. dosfucad betrays the interpo- 

2 leicthir YBL. ; but the imperative is supported by the 
following duntar. 

3 fónópair LU., fonobair YBL. 

4 ce robói LU., cia roibi YBL. ; cf. vocabulary under -d-. 

5 et, with mark of contraction LU., eiter YBL. 

6 mss. indar. 

7 = do-n-luid. 

8 mss. indara. 

9 mss. farrad, with Mid.-Irish prothetic f. 


" Conérget 1 Ulaid ara ammus, araill diib for less, 
araill for dorus liss. D-am-berat i n-ucht Conchobuir. 
Focertar armgrith 2 mór leo, .i. mace sethar ind rig 
do folmaissiu a báis. Dotéit Culand issa tech laso- 
din. l Fochen duit, a maccáin, fodéig cridi do 
máthar. Messe, immurgu, ní mad-airgénus fleid. 
Is bethu immudu 3 ocus is trebad immaig mo threbad 
i ndegaid mo chon. Conaggaib ainech ocus anmain 
•dom-sa,' olsé, l in fer muintire ruccad úaim .i. mo 
chú. Robo din ocus ditiu diar feib ocus ar n-indili. 
Ropo imdegail cacha slabrae dun eter mag ocus tech.* 
4 Ní mór brig sin tra/ ol in gillae. ' Ebéltair 4 cuilén 
din chúain 5 chétnai lem-sa duit, ocus be 6 cú-sa do 
imdegail do chethrae ocus dot imdegail féin colléic 
cor-ása in cú hísin ocus corop ingníma. Ocus 
imdius-sa Mag Murthemne ule; nícon-bérthar 7 úaim- 
se éit ná almae ass, manip aurderg 8 lim-sa.' ' Bid 
Cú Chulaind t'ainm-siu iarom,' ol Cathbad. ' Maith 
lem cid ed mo ainm,' ol Cúchulaind. 

1 comérgit LU., comeirgid YBL. 

2 armcrith YBL. 

3 leg. is bethu immudu mo bethu (?). 
* ebeltar YBL. 

5 cuani LU. 

8 MSS. biam. O. Ir. be I shall be, cf. Wb. 4^18, becomes 
later bia and biam. 

^ nocomberthar LU., nochomberthar YBL. 
b aúrderg (b corrected to d) LU. 


"Fer dorigni sin amdar lána a sé blíadni, ní pu 
machdad ce dorónad-side dag-gním intan ata lána. 
a secht mbliadni deac," ol Conall Cernach. 




[LU. 61020-62012 = YBL. 20^31-21^18.] 

"Dogéni fecht n-aili dano," ol Fiachu mac 
Firfebe. "Bói Cathbad drúi hi fail a maicc .L 
Conchobuir maic Nessa. Cét fer ndéinmech dó oc 
foglaimm druidechtae úad. Issé lín do-n-inchois~ 
ched 1 Cathbad. Iarmifoacht araile dia felmaccaib 
do suidiu cid dia mbad maith al-lá-sa. Asbert 
Cathbad, ócláech nogébad gaisced and, forbiad a 
ainm Hérinn co bráth ar gnim gaiscid 2 7 nomértis 
a airscélae co bráth. 

" Roclunethar Cúchulaind anísin. Dotéit co Con- 
chobor do chuindchid gaiscid. Asbeir Conchobor : 

1 doninchoisced LU., noninchoisced YBL. In later O. Iiy 
and in Mid. Ir. sch becomes sc. 
3 forbiad a ainm ar gnimaib gaiscid firu Erend YBL. 


1 Cia dorinchoisc duit?' * Mo phopa Cathbad,' ol 
Cúchulaind. ' Rofetammar ém, , ol Conchobor. 
Dobeir gáe ocus scíath dó. Bertaigthus for lár in 
tige coná térnai ní donaib cóic gaiscedaib deac 
nobítis di immforcraid i tegluch Conchobuir fri 
maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngaiscid do neoch. 
Co tardad do gaisced Conchobuir féin. F-al-loing- 
som side immurgu 1 7 bertaigthi, 2 7 bendachais in rig 
ba gaisced ocus asbert : ' Céin mair túaith 7 chenél 
dianid rí in fer assa arm so.' Doicc iarom Cathbad 
cucu 7 asbeir : ' In gaisced gaibes in gillae ? ' ol 
Cathbad. 'Ed,' ol Conchobor. ' Ni sirsan do mace 
a máthar ém,' olsé. i Ced ón ? Nách tussu ém 
do-d-indarchossaig ?' 3 'Nách mé écin,' ol Cathbad. 
* Cid do chanae 4 duit in bréc do imbirt form, a 
siriti?' ol Conchobor fri Coinculaind. 'A rí Féne, 
ní bréc,' ol Cúchulaind. ' Is hé dorinchoisc dia 
felmaccaib imbúaruch, 7 r-a-chuala-sa fri Emain 
andess 7 dodechad-sa cucut-su iarom.' ' Is maith 
ane al-láe/ 5 ol Cathbad. ' Is glé bid airdairc 7 bid 
animgnaid intí gébas gaisced and, acht bid duthain 
nammá.' 4 Amrae brige son,' ol Cúchulaind. 'Acht 

1 falloingside immurgu eseom mss. For the emendation cf. 
Wb. 31^9, Ml. 22^4, 44^14, Sg. i6aS. 

2 bertaigthi hé LU., bertaigsi he YBL. 

3 donarchossaig LU., dodnarchosaig YBL. ; dodindarchoss- 
aig = do-d-ind-ro-chossaig, who has taught it, is a conjectural 

4 mss. chana. 5 mss. in laa. 


ropa airdirc-se, maith lem ceni 1 beinn acht óen-láe 
for domun.' 

" Al-láe n-aile imcomairc araile fer donaib dmidib, 
cid dia mbo maith al-láe-sin. * Nech noregad i 
carpat and/ ol Cathbad, * forbiad a ainm Hérinn co 
bráth.' Roclunethar iarom Cuchulaind sin. Dotét- 
side co Conchobor, co n-epert friss : l A phopa 
Chonchobuir,' olsé, ' carpat dom-sa!' Dobeir-side 
carpat do. Forruirim a láim eter di fertais in char- 
pait, co m-memaid inna láim 2 in carpat. Brissis in 
dá charpat deac in chruth-sin. Doberar dó iarom 
carpat Conchobuir. F-al-loing-som side. 3 

"Téit isin carpat iarsuidiu, 7 arae 4 Conchobuir 
leiss. Imsói in t-arae, .i. Ibor a ainm-side, in carpat 
fói-som. 'Tair asin charput 5 in fecht-sa,' 6 ol in 
t-arae. ' It cóim 7 ind 8 eich, am coem-sa dano, am 
maccóem, ,9 ol Cuchulaind. *Tair reunn timchell 
nEmna nammá, 7 ro-t-bía a lóg 10 airi.' Téit ón dano 

1 mss., cen co is not found in the O.-Ir. glosses. In the old 
tale Togal Brudne Dá Derga YBL. 100^3 has ceni beth, which 
in LU. 91627 has been changed to céin co beth. 

2 ina laim YBL. om. LU. 

3 mss. foloing side heseom (eseom YBL.). 

4 In the mss. regularly ara, but arae Rev. Celt. xi. 450. 

5 mss. isin charpat. 

6 fechtsa LU., afeachtsa YBL. 

7 coéma LU., coema YBL. 

8 mss. na as regularly in Mid. Ir. 

9 am maccóem: amaccán LU., ammaccam YBL. 

10 luag LU., the later form. 


in t-arae. Ocas cotnéícnigedar 1 Cíichulaind iarsuidia 
co tairled 2 forsin sligid do chelebrad donaibmaccaib, 
7 ' con-dom-bendachtis in maicc' Gáid dó dano co 
tairled in sligid dofrithisi. 3 'O tháncatar ón dano, 
asbert Cuchulaind frisin n-araid : ' Indaig brot forsin 
n-echraid tra,' olsé. ' Ced leth ón ? ' ol in t-arae. 
1 Céin ad-n-indain 4 in tslige/ ol Cuchulaind. 

" Teccat 5 disuidiu co Slíab Fuait. Foreccat Conall 
Cernach and. Do Chonall dano dorala imdegail in 
chóicid al-láe-sin. Fobíthin no-m-bíid 6 each láth 
gaile di Ultaib a láe i Sléib Fúait fri snádud neich 
do-d-issed 7 co n-airchetul no do chomruc fri fer, co 
mbad andsin conrístae friss, arná téised nech dochum 
nEmna cen rathugud. * Do sóinmigi sin tra/ ol 
Conall, 'rob do búaid 7 choscur.' ' 'Eirg-siu tra, 
a Chonaill, don dún, 7 no-m-léic-se 8 oc forairi sund 
colléic/ ol Cuchulaind. * Bid lour son/ ol Conall, 
' mad fri snádud neich co n-airchetul ; mad do chom- 
ruc fri fer immurgu, is rom son duit-siu cose beus.' 
* Bés ní pu écen ón etir/ ol Cuchulaind. ' Tiagam 

1 cotneignigestair YBL. 2 dairled LU., dairleth YBL. 
3 mss. dorisi. 

4 adindain LU., anindain YBL. 

5 tecait LU., tecaid YBL., with the absolute ending. 
( ' nobiid LU., nobith YBL. 

7 dothissad LU., dodisad YBL. In do-d-ísed d is the neut. 
pron., who should come there. 

8 mss. romleicsea, but in O. Ir. no- is used before an infixed 
pronoun in the imperative. 


etarphort,' ol Cuchulaind, 'do décsin úainn for fertais 
Locha Echtrae. Is gnáth airisem oac Féne and.' 
* Is maith lim,' ol Conall. 

"Tiagait ass iarom. Foceirdj-seom cloich assa 
thabaill co m-memaid fertas charpait Conaill 
Chernaich. i Cid frissan-da-rolais 1 in cloich, a 
maccáin? , ol Conall. 'Do phromad mo lám 7 
dirge mo urchair,' ol Cuchulaind. ' Ocus is bés 
dúib-si for nUltaib ní réidid tar éclinde. 2 'Eirg-siu 3 
do Emain afrithisi, a phopa Chonaill, 7 no-m-léic-se 4 
sund oc forairL' ' Maith lim dano,' ol Conall. Ni 
dechaid Conall Cernach sech in magin iarsuidiu. 

"Téit Cúchulaind ass iarom do loch Echtrae, 7 
ní fuaratar nech and ara ciunn. Asbert in t-arae fri 
Coinculaind ara n-urthaitis do Emain co tairsitis óol 
and. ' Ace,' ol Cuchulaind. ' Ced sliab inso thall ? ' 
ol Cuchulaind. ( Sliab Monduirn/ ol in t-arae. 
1 Tiagam co risam,' ol Cuchulaind. Tiagait iarom 
cor-ráncatar. Iar ríchtin 5 dóib in t-slébe imcomar- 
cair Cuchulaind iarom : ' Cia earn ngel inso thall 
i n-úachtur in tslébe ? ' i Findcharn,' ol in t-arae. 

1 mss. frisindrolais. If the emendation be right, da would 
be an infixed fern, pron., anticipating the following accusative, 
why have you thrown the stone ? 

2 eglindne LU., tarinnglinde YBL. 

3 aircsiu LU., aircseo YBL. ; airg is a later form of éirg, a 
-aipir says, of -eipir. 

4 romleicse LU., romleicsea YBL. 
5 riaclitaiii LU., tiachtain YBL. 


'Cedmag ani thall?' ol Cuchulaind. < Mag mBreg/ 
ol in t-arae. Adfét dó dano ainm cech phrímdúne 
eter Temair 1 7 Chenandas. Adfét dó cétamus a 
n-iathu 7 a n-áthu, a n-airdircci 7 a treba, a ndúne 
7 a n-ard-dindgnu. 




[LU. 62012-63(245 = YBL. 21^18-22^45.] 

" Incosig 2 dó dano dun tri mace Nechtae 3 Scene, 
.i. Foill 7 Fannall 7 Túachell a n-anman-aidi. ' In- 
dat éside asberat,' ol Cúchulaind, 'nach móo fil di 
Ultaib i mbethaid oldaas ro-m-beotar-som 4 diib?' 
4 At é écin,' ol in t-arae. 'Tiagam con-da-rísam,' 

1 mss. Themair. O. Ir. eter does not aspirate. 

2 inchoscid LU., with the Mid. Ir. extension of the absolute 
ending to the compound ; inchosaich YBL. 

3 Nechta LU., Nectain YBL.; so Nechta LU. 62023 = 
Nechtain YBL. 21Í29. But at LU. 62^18= YBL. 22021 both 
mss. have Nechta. 

4 robeotarsom LU., robeodtarsom YBL. ; according to the 
O.-Ir. rule relative n is required. 


ol Cúchulaind. ' Is gúas 1 dúnn ém/ ol in t-arae. 
'Ní dia imgabáil ám tiagmai,' ol Cuchulaind. 

"Tiagait ass iarom 7 scorit a n-eochu oc combor 2 
mánae 7 abae alle andess 3 úas dun a chéle. Ocus 
srethi in n-id bói forsin chorthiu róut a lámae isin 
n-abainn, ocus léicthi la sruth, dáig ba coll ngesse 
do maccaib Nechtae Scene anisin. Arigit-side iarom 
7 dotiagat a ndochum. Contuli Cuchulaind iarom 
ocon chorthiu iar lécud ind ide frissin sruth, 7 asbert 
frissin n-araid : ' Ni-m-dersaige fri uathad, do-m- 
iusche 4 immurgu fri sochuidi.' Ba immecal immurgu 
in t-arae colléic, 7 indlid-side a charpat 7 dosrenga 
a fortgai 7 a Ibrgaimniu robátar for 5 Coinchu- 
laind, ore 6 nách-rolámair 7 a díuschud dáig as-m- 
bert Cuchulaind frissom ar thus nách-díusched fri 
úathed. 8 

"Teccat 9 iarom maic Nechtae Scene. * Cia fil 

1 guáis LU. 

2 mss. commor. 

3 mss. allandess. 

4 mss. nomdiusca, with Mid.-Ir. prefixation of no- to the 
compound verb. 

5 fo YBL. 

6 mss. uair, a Mid.-Ir. form of O. Ir. ore or uare. 

7 nachrolamar LU. In O. Ir. the neg. nách implies an 
infixed pron., and here náchrolámair might stand for nách-n- 
ro-Iamair ; the infixed pronoun anticipating the object. But in 
Mid. Ir. nách is common with no infixed pron., and here nád 
rolámair should not improbably be restored. 

8 huated LU., uathad YBL. ; cf. LU. 57^3, Wb. 25^38. 
9 tecait LU., tecaid YBL. 

C 2 


sund?' ol fer diib. ' Mace becc dochóid indiu ar 
esclu 1 hi carpat,' ol in t-arae. * Ni po 2 do soinmigi,' 
ol in láech, ' 7 ni rop do fechtnaigi dó a chétgabáil 
gaiscid. 3 Ná bid innar tir 7 ná gelat ind eich and 
ni as 4 móo/ ol in láech. l Attaat a n-éssi im láim- 
se,' ol in t-arae. ' Nírbo lat-su tuillem 5 écraite/ ol 
Ibar frisin láech, '7 attá dano in mace inna chotlud.' 
'Nida 6 mace écin/ ol Cúchulaind, ' acht is do 
chuindchid comraic fri fer dodechaid in mace fil 
and.' 'Is sain lim-sa on,' ol in láech. 'Bid sain 
duit-siu indossa isind áth ucut/ ol Cúchulaind. 

"Is tacair 7 duit tra/ ol in t-arae; ' foichle in fer 
dothét ar do chenn — Foill a ainm/ olsé ; ' ar mani 
tetarrais isin chét-forgub, 8 ni tetarrais co fescor.' 
' Tongu do dia toinges mo thúath, nícon-imbéra-som 
for Ultu a cless-sin doridisi diantairle 9 mánáis mo 
phopa Chonchobuir as mo láim-se. Bid lám deóraid 
do.' Sréthius fair iarom in sleig co m-memaid a 
druimm triit. Dobert leiss a fodb 7 a chenn iar- 

1 oesclu YBL. 

2 nirop YBL. 

3 mss. ngaiscid, where there is no reason for the n. 

4 The subjunctive bes might have been expected. 

5 tollem LU., tuilled YBL. 
,j nimda LU., nidam YBL. 

7 tacar LU., taccar YBL. 

h chetforgam LU., chetforcam YBL. 

■ dianotárle LU., dianotairle YBL. 


" * Foichle in fer n-aile,' ol in t-arae. ' Fannall 
a ainm-side. Ni trummu do-n-essa 1 in n-usce oldaas 
elae nó fannall. 'Tongu-sa dano nícon-imbéra- 
som for Ultu a 2 cless-sin doridisi,' ol Cúchulaind. 
'Adcondarc-su ém,' olsé, 'indas immatíag-sa a Hind 3 
oc Emain.' Conrecat iarom issind áth. Gonaid-som 
dano in fer sin, 7 dobert a chenn 7 a fodb laiss. 

" i Foichle in fer n-aile dothét cuccut/ ol in t-arae. 
1 Túachell a ainm. Ni lessainm do, ar ni tuit di arm 
eter.' ' Ondar do-som in del chliss dia mescad, con- 
idn-derna retherderc 4 de/ ol Cúchulaind. Sréthius fair 
iarom in sleig conidrallá inna chomsuidiu. Doluid 
a dochum iarom, 7 benaid a chenn de. Dobert 
Cúchulaind a chenn 7 a fodb laiss dia araid fadessin. 

"Co cúalae iarsuidiu fóid a m-máthar inna ndiaid, 
Á. Nechtae Scene. Dobeir a fodb disuidiu, 7 do- 
beir na tri chenn 5 laiss inna charpat, 7 asbert : 
' Ní fáicéb 6 tra mo choscur/ olsé, * cor-ris Emain 

1 mss* doessa ; relative n is required by the O.-Ir. rule. 

2 mss. in. That cless was originally neuter appears from 
a clessin LU. 62^44, a cless 69^28, and nom. pi. tri chles 
121Í14. In Mid. Ir. it is masculine. 

3 mss. inlind. That lind was originally neuter is shown by 
darsa mór-lind, Irische Texte I. 81. 

4 mss. retherderg. 

5 mss. cind. In O. Ir. cenn is neut., later masc. In O. Ir. 
the shorter form of the neuter pi. (e.g. cenn for cenna) is used 
only when the article or a numeral precedes. 

6 mss. fuicéb. 


" Documlat ass iarom cona coscur. Is andsin 
asbert Cuchulaind frissin n-araid : ' Dorairngirt-siu 1 
dag-érim 2 dúnn,' ol Ciichulaind, ' 7 ro-sn-ecam a 
less indossa, dáig in tressa 7 inna iarra fil innar 
ndiaid.' Imriadat iarom co Slíab Fíiait. Ba hé lúas 
ind érmae do-n-ucsat iar mBregaib iar ngrisad 
ind arad, co togrennitis ind eich ton charput in 
ngáith 7 inna eónu for lúamain, 7 co tairthed 
Cúchulaind in n-urchor dolléced 3 assa thailm resin 
rised talmain. 

" Iar ríchtin dóib Slébe Fúait, forrecat almai n-oss 
n-and ara ciunn. ' Cissi slabrae in discer-sa thall ? ' 
ol Cuchulaind. ' Oiss altai/ ol in t-arae. ' Cia de/ 
ol Cuchulaind, i bad ferr la Ultu, a m-marb 4 do 
breith dóib nó a mbeó ? ' ' Is inganto a mbeó,' ol 
in t-arae, ' dóib. Ni each óen condric 5 samlaid. 
A m-marb immurgu ni fil úadib-som ónáchrí. 6 Ni 
cumci-su on, 7 a beó nach ae do breith/ ol in t-arae. 
'Cumcim écin/ ol Cuchulaind. 'Indaig brot forsna 
eochu isin mónai.' Dogní in t-arae ón anisin. 
Glenait ind eich isin mónai iarom. Taurling 

1 dorargertaissiu LU., dorairngertaisiu YBL., with Mid.-Ir. 
transformation of the t preterite. 

2 dagimrim YBL. 
?> = do-n-léced. 

4 a marb nach ae YBL., a m-marb no a m-beó LU. 

' condarric YBL. 

n ónachric LU. 

7 cumcison LU., cumgisó on YBL. 


Cuchulaind, 7 gaibid in n-oss ba nessam dó 7 ba 
chóimem 1 diib. Slaittius sechnón na mónae 7 
damainti fochétóir. Conreraig 2 eter di feirt 3 in 

" Conaccatar ní, éill ngésse ara ciunn aitherruch. 
' Cia de bad ferr la Ultu/ ol Cúchulaind, 'a mbeó 
nó a m-marb do brith dóib ? ' 'Is a mbeó beres 
a n-as beodu, 7 a n-as ségundo,' ol in t-arae. 
Láthraid Cúchulaind iarom cloich mbicc forsna 
eónu co mbí ocht n-eónu diib. Inláa airithisi 
cloich móir co mbí dá én deac diib. Tre thaith- 
bemmen tra insin ule. 

" c Tecmall na eónu dún tra,' ol Cuchulaind fria 
araid. ' Mad messe dig 4 dia tabairt/ olsé, ' con- 
clichfe in dam allaid fort-su.' Ní réid dom a thecht 
ém/ ol in t-arae. Rodássed imna eochu conná 
dichthim seccu. Ní étaim dano techt sech nechtar 
in dá roth iarndae in charpait ara fáebraigi, ocus 
ni dichthim dano sech in dam, ar rolin a chongnae 
eter di feirt 5 in charpait ule.' ' Cing-siu ammin 6 dia 
chongnu,' ol Cuchulaind. * Tongu-sa do dia toingte 

1 mss. caimem ; but after relative ba was there is aspiration. 

2 cumrigis LU., cumraigis YBL., with Mid.-Ir. transition 
from reduplicated preterite to s preterite. 

3 da fert LU., dia feirt YBL. 

4 theis YBL., of which the O.-Ir. form would be tias, 3 sg. 
rel. of pres. subj. of tiagu. 

5 mss. fert. 

6 amd LU., amend YBL. The restoration is uncertain. 


Ulaid, clóinad noclóinub-sa 1 mo chenn fair no in 
tsúil dogén-sa friss, nicon-ioicher cor dia chiunn fritt 
7 nicon-lilmaither 2 a glúasacht. , Dognith 8 son 
iarom. Conrig Cúchulaind inna éssi, 7 tecmalla 4 
in t-arae inna eónu. Conreraig Cuchulaind iarsin 
na eónu di thétaib 7 refedaib in charpait, Conid 
samlaid sin luid do Emain Machae — dam allaid 
i ndiaid a charpait, 7 fall gésse oc folúamain úassae 
7 trí chenn 5 inna charput. 

" Reccat 6 iarsin co Emain. ' Carptech dorét far 
ndochum,' ol in dercaid i nEmain Machae. 'Ar- 
dáilfe fuil laiss each duini fil isind liss mani foich- 
lither 7 mani dichset mná ernochta friss.' Tosói-som 
iarom clár clé a charpait fri Emain, ocus ba geiss 
di anisin. Ocus asbert Cúchulaind: 'Tongu do dia 
toingte 7 Ulaid, mani étar fer do gliaid 8 frim-sa, ar- 

1 = no-n-cldinub-sa, with infixed relative -n-. mss. clden- 
fatsa. In O. Ir. no- regularly appears in the first and second 
persons of the pres. ind., pres. subj., and fut. ind. of simple 
verbs when they are used relatively. See Celtische Zeitschrift, 
III., 2S3. 

2 nocolémaither (with transition to the *?'fut.) LU., nocholin- 
faithir YBL. 

3 dognit LU., dognid YBL. 

4 tecmaltha LU., tecmolta YBL. 5 mss. tri cind 
8 recait LU., dorecaid YBL. 

7 toigthe LU., tongaid YBL. In the 3 pi. relative forms 
like toingte were at an early period replaced by absolute forms 
like tongait. Hence the old forms were very liable to corrup- 
tion in the mss. Here the MSS. exemplify the two common 
types of such corruption. 8 MSS. gled. 


dáiliub fuil each óin fil isin dun.' ' Mná ernochta 
ara chenn ! ' ol Conchobor. Totéit iarom bantrocht 
nEmna ara chenn im Mugain mnái Conchobuir 
maic Nessa ocus donochtat a mbruinniu friss. l It 
é óic inso conricfat frit indiu,' ol Mugain. Folugi- 
som 1 a gnúis. Lasodin atnethat láith gaile Emna 7 
focerdat i ndabaig n-úar-usci. Maitti imbi-som in 
dabach hisin. In dabach aile dano ir-rolád, fichis 
dornaib de. In tress dabach i ndechaid iarsuidiu, 
fo-sn-gert-side co mbo chuimse do a tess 7 a úacht. 
Dotét ass iarom, 7 dobert ind rigain iarsuidiu, .i. 
Mugain, brat ngorm n-imbi, 7 delg n-argit n-and, 
7 léne chulpatach. Ocus suidid fo glún Chonchob- 
uir iarom, 7 ba si sin a lepaid dogrés iarsuidiu. Fer 
dorigni sin inna sechtmad bliadain," ol Fiachu 
mac Firfebe, "ni po machdad cia chonbósad-side 2 
for écomlonn 7 cia notragad for comlonn, intan ata 
lána a secht mbliadni 3 deac indiu." 

[In the preceding extracts have been given the 
chief of the "Mac-gnimradaConculaind," the boyish 
feats of Cuchulinn, as narrated to the Connaughtmen 
by the Ulster exiles who were in the invading host. 

1 mss. foiligiseom, the enclitic form. 

2 mss. chonbosaide. 

3 b6 bhV LU. 


The following passages are extracts from the body 
of the Táin. When the invasion took place, the 
warriors of Ulster were in a state of debility (' cess'), 
to which they were periodically subject in conse- 
quence of an ancient curse. From this sickness 
Cuchulinn was exempt, and on him fell the defence 
of Ulster.] 


How Cuchulinn delayed the Invaders. 

[LU. 58^11-58622 = YBL. 17638-18^40.] 

Cuchulinn had gone to keep a tryst with Fedelm Nóichride. 
Next day he discovers that the invaders have passed him. 

Feótar iarom i Cuil Sibrille. Ferais snechtae mór 
forru co fernu fer 7 co drochu carpat. 

Ba mocha m-maten iarnabárach 1 do érgiu. Nírbo 
si 2 sin adaig robo 3 sámam dóib lasin snechtae, 7 
ní argénsat biada dóib ind adaig-sin. Ni po moch 
dano doluid Cúchulaind assa bandáil. Anais co 
foilc 7 co fothraic. 

1 MSS. arnabárach. In the O.-Ir. glosses I have noted only 
arabárach Ml. 48^12, 98^5. Owing to the scantiness of the 
material, it is impossihle to decide if this was the only O.-Ir. 

2 hi LU., a Mid.-Ir. form. 

' ropa LU. O. Ir. ba, but robo, ropo, etc. 


Dotét iarom for lorg in tslóig. " Ní mad-lod- 
mar 1 dó," ol Cúchulaind, "ná mertamar Ultu. Ro- 
léicsem slóg form cen airfius." " Cuire airdmius 
dun tarsin slóg," ol Cúchulaind fri Lóeg, u co fess- 
amar lin in tslóig." Dogní Lóeg anísin, 7 asbeir 
fri Coinculaind : " Is mesc lim-sa,' , olsé, " anísiu ; 
ní ermaissim." " Ní pa mesc atchíu, 2 acht rís-sa, 3 " ol 
Cúchulaind. " Tair issin carpat 4 didiu," ol Lóeg. 
Téit 5 Cúchulaind issin carpat, 4 7 foceird airdmius 
forsin lorg iar céin móir. "Cid tussu," ol Lóeg, 
í( ní réid fort." " Is assu ém dom-sa oldaas duit-siu. 
Air attaat trí búadae form-sa, .i. búaid roisc 7 int- 
liuchta 7 airdmessa. Roláus-sa didiu tra, ,J olsé, 
11 fomus forsanísin. Ocht trichait chét deac inso, ,y 
olsé, " ara rim, acht forodlad in t-ochtmad trichae 
cét deac fon slóg n-uile, conid mesc fria rím .i. 
trichae cét na nGalión." 

Doluid Cúchulaind iarom timchell in tslóig co 
mbói oc 'Ath Grena. Benaid gabail isuidiu óen- 

1 nímálodmar LU. 

2 adchiu YBL. As after mesc, by the O.-Ir. rule, an infixed 
relative would be required, we should expect adciu = ad-n-ciu. 
But the corruption is probably deeper, for after the fut. ba 
another future would be regular. Hence in all probability 
adcichiu should be restored, it will not be confusedly that 
I shall see, 

3 mss. acht corisa. 

4 isin carpat LU., isin charpat YBL; leg. assin charput 
out of the chariot. 
5 tic LU. 


béim 1 conachlaidiub, 7 saidsius formedónna glasse, 
conná dichtheth carpat friae disíu nách anall. Do- 
fuircet 3 occo Eirr 7 Indell, Fóich 7 Fochlam a ndá 
arae. Benaid som a cethir 3 chenna diib 7 foceird 
for cetheora benna na gablae. Is de attá 'Ath 
Gablae. 4 

Tiagait iarom eich in chethrair i n-agid in tslóig 
7 a fortchai forderga foraib. Inda leo ba cath bói 
ara ciunn isind áth. Dotéit buiden úadib do décsin 
ind átha. Ní accatar ní and acht slicht ind óen- 
charpait, 7 in gabul cosnaib cethrib cennaib 5 7 ainm 
n-oguim iarna scríbund inna tóeb. Rice in slúag 
ule lasodin. "In diar muintir-ni na cenna llcut? ,, 
ol Medb. "Is diar muintir-ni ón 7 is diar forglidib, ,, 
ol Ailill. Arléga 6 fer diib in n-ogom robói i tóeb na 

1 In O. Ir. bémmim would be the usual form of the dative, 
but cf. Ml. 19^5, 75^4, 84^9, 85^6. 

2 Leg. d-a-fuircet : cf. do-fuircifea, Wb. 25^16. 

3 cethri LU., ceithri YBL. 

4 athngabla LU., ath gabla, with a letter erased before g, 
YBL. So áth m-Bude LU. 70^47, where YBL. 3002 seems to 
have ath bhuidhe. Such further evidence as I have of the gender 
of ath points to a masculine. 

5 mss. cosna (cusna YBL.) cethri cinnu. 

6 ardléga LU. ; ardlega, with under d YBL. If there be 
an anticipatory infixed pronoun, we should have expected 
arallega = ar-an-lega. In Mid. Ir. d forms of the infixed 
pronoun appear after ar- in non-relative forms — e.g. ar-da- 
slig LU. 56^4. There ar- follows the analogy of for-, which 
In O. Ir. took the d forms. 


gablae, .i. " óenfer rolá 1 in gabuil cona óen-láim, 7 
ní téssid secce con-da-rala nech úaib 2 cona óen-láim 
cenmithá 3 Fergus." "Is machthad," ol Ailill, "a 
thraite ro-m-bith in cethror." " Ná bad ed bas 
machdad lat," ol Fergus; "bad béim na gablae di 
bun óen-béim, 7 massu óen-leód a bun is crichidiu 
de, 7 a intádud in tucht-sa; ol ni claide rochlass 
remi 4 7 is a íarthur carpait roláad co n-óen-láim." 

" Dingaib dinn in n-écin-se, a Fergus," ol Medb. 
u Tuccaid carpat dom-sa tra," ol Fergus, " con-da- 
tuc-sa ass, co ndercastar 5 in n-óen-leód a bun." 
Brissis Fergus iarom cethri cairptiu deac dia cairp- 
tib, co mbo assa charput fessin do-sm-bert a tal- 
main, co n-accatar 6 ba óen-leód a bun. " Is tabarthi 
do airi," ol Ailill, "indass in cheneúil cosa-tiagam. 
Ergnad each úaib a biad. Nírbo sám dúib irráir 
lassin snechtae. Ocus aisndethar 7 dun ni do im- 
thechtaib 7 airscélaib in cheniúil cosa-tiagam. " 

1 MSS. rodlá. As gabul is fern., with the anticipatory infixed 
pronoun we should have had ro-da-la. 

2 dib YBL. 

3 mss. cenmotha. 

4 mss. rempe, the Mid.-Ir. form. 

5 mss. condercaiss ; co ndercastar that it may be seen has 
been restored, because (1) in this verb s forms are regularly 
confined to the passive, the 2 sg. subj. act. would be co 
ndercither, (2) if the form were active, the 2 pi. might have 
been expected after the pi. tuccaid. 

6 conaca LU. 

7 mss. innister, a verb which I have not met in O.-Ir. docu- 


Is andsin tra adfessa dóib imthechta Conculaind. 
Imcomairc Ailill iarom : " Inn é Conchobor dorigéni 
so?" " Nách é," ol Fergus. "Ni tergad-side co 
or criche cen lin catha imbi." u Ceist, inn é Celt- 
char mac Uthidir?" " Nách é. Ní tergad-side co 
or criche cen lin catha imbi." " Ceist, inn é Eogan 
mac Durthacht ? " " Nách é," ol Fergus. " Ni ter- 
gad-side tar or cocriche cen trichait carpat n-imrind 
imbi. Is é fer dogénad in ngnim," ol Fergus, 
u Cuchulaind. Is é nobíad 1 a crann óen-béimmim 2 
di bun, 7 nogénad in cethrur in praipi 3 ro-m-bitha, 
7 doregad dochom criche 7 a arae." 

1 mss. nobenfad, with transition tof future. 

2 oenbeim YBL. 

3 hi praipi LU. 



[LU. 6301-29 = YBL. 22^48-23030.] 

'Tiagam ass tra in fecht-sa/ ol Ailill. Roeccat 
iarom Mag Mucceda. Benaid Cuchulaind omnai 
ara ciunn isuidiu, 7 scríbais ogum inna tóib. Issed 
robói and, arná dechsad nech seccai 1 co ribuilsed 
err óen-charpait. Focerdat a puiplea 2 isuidiu, 7 
dotíagat dia léimmim inna cairptib. Dotuit trichae 
ech oc suidiu 7 bristir trichae carpat and. Belach 
n'Ane iarom, issed ainm inna maigne-sin co bráth. 

Bíit and co arabárach. Congairther Fróech dóib. 
' To-n-fóir, á Fróich,' ol Medb. ' Diúscart 3 dínn 
in n-écin fll forn. 'Eirg dúnn ar chenn 4 Conculaind, 
dús in comrasta friss.' 

Tocumlai ass maitin muich 5 nónbar co mbói oc 
'Ath Fúait, co n-accai in n-óclaig occa fothrucad 
isind abainn. ' Anaid sund/ ol Fróech fria muintir, 

1 sechai LU. 

2 pupli LU., puipli YBL. 

3 díscart LU., dichosctarad YBL. 

4 mss. cind. 
5 moch YBL. 


1 con-id-ral 1 frissin fer n-ucut. Ní maith i n-llsciu, , 
olsé. Ticsa 2 a étach de. Téit issin n-usce a 
dochum. ' Ná tair ar mo chenn-sa, , ol Cúchulaind. 
' Atbélae de, 7 is tróg limm do marbad.' ' Rega 3 
dm,' ol Fróech, ' co comairsem isind usciu, 7 bad 
chert do chluiche frimm.' ' Committe 4 son amal bas 
maith lat,' ol Cuchulaind. ' Lám cechtar náthar 
imm alaile/ ol Fróech. Ata-agat 5 co céin móir oc 
imthascrad 6 forsind usciu 7 bátir Fróech. T-an- 
ócaib súas airithissi. ' In dul-so,' ol Cuchulaind, 

1 mss. conidrolur. In Mid. Ir. the deponent ending -ur 
spread widely in the 1 sg. of the pres. subj. 

2 tiscaid LU., tiscaid YBL. I have written ticsa after tisca 
LU. 640:22; cf. tanisca LU. 65^37 = tanisca YBL. 25031. 
Should we read doicsa like do-n-iscide LU. 8658 ? 

3 ragat LU., ragad YBL. 

4 committi LU., commiti YBL. 

5 atnagat LU., atnagaid YBL. I have written ata-agat 
= ad-da-agat with some hesitation, on the assumption that tn 
has spread from the 3 sg. atnaig = ad-dn-aig, just as in Mid. 
Ir. atregat they rise replaces ataregat, from the 3 sg. atraig. 
atnaig, atnagat are commonly referred to ad-naich. But 
(1) ad-naich has commonly the specialized sense of bury> 
though that in itself does not prove that it might not have also 
had a more general meaning ; (2) forms without n are found in 
a similar sense, e. g. , ataig in cendáil occo he puts the heads 
by hint, Irische Texte, I. 297 ; adagat (v.l. atnagat) a ngol 
they raised their lament) Celtische Zeitschrift, iv. 42 ; adaig 
(v.l. atnaig) a tri géiminno it bellowed thrice ', Rev. Celt. x. 
224 ; adachtatár in crich hi tenid they set the country onfire> 
LU. 65012. 

G mss. oc imthrascrad. 


í in ndidmae th'anacol ? ' l Nicon-didem ?1 . ol 
Fróech. Atnaig Cúchulaind fói atherruch con-id- 
appad Fróech. D-a-cuirethar 2 for tit. Berait a 
muinter a cholainn co mbói issin dunud. 'Ath 
Fróich ainm ind átha-sin co bráth. 

Cóinti a ndúnad n-ule 3 Fróech. Conaccatar ban- 
chuire i n-inaraib uanib for colainn Fróich maic 
Idaid. Focessat úadib issa síd. Sid Fróich ainm 
in tsidae sin iarom. 

Lingid Fergus darsin n-omnai inna charput. 



[LU. 68040-68636 = YBL. 27637-28041.] 

[Fergus goes to make a compact with Cuchulinn, 
that every morning a man should be sent to fight 
with Cuchulinn at the ford : if he fell, the invading 
army should remain where it was till the following 
morning, when another man must be sent in the 
same manner. Etarcomol accompanies Fergus.] 

1 nocodidem LU., nochodidem YBL. 

2 mss. tocurethar. 

3 indunad uile YBL. 



Luid Fergus iarom forsin n-immarchor n-isin. 
Lil di suidiu dano Etarcomol mac Eda 7 Léthrinne, 
mac-daltae Ailella 7 Medbae. ' Ni accobur lem do 
thecht,' ol Fergus, ' 7 ni ar do miscuis. Scith lim 
nammá comrac duib 7 Chúchulaind. Do sotlae-su 1 
7 do soisle ; luinde 7 ansirce, drus 7 tairpthige 2 7 
dechrad do chéli .i. Conculaind. Ni bia maith di 3 
for comruc. , ' Cani setir 4 lat-su mo snádud airi ? ' 
ol Etarcomol. * Seitir 5 dano,' ol Fergus, ' acht 
nammá ni tardae a rád fri díardain.' Teccat de 
i ndib cairptib do Delgae 6 . 

Bói Cuchulaind ind uair-sin oc imbirt buanfaig fri 
Láeg — a di chúlaid-som friu 7 enech Láig. * Adciu 
dá charpat cucunn,' ol Láeg. * Fer mór donn issin 
charput tóisech. Folt donn cróebach fair. Brat 
corcrae imbi. Eú óir and. Léne chulpatach co 
nderg-intliud imbi. Cromsciath co faebur chon- 
duala fair di iindruini. Mánáis bréfech ó mimusc 
co adairc inna láim. Claideb sithidir lui curaig 7 for 

1 sotlasu YBL., sotlacht LU. 

2 tarpige LU., tairpthigi YBL. 

3 do LU. 

4 mss. set". At YBL. 278^3 in setir lat is written in full. 

5 mss. seit". 

6 Here and at LU. 6806, 8 the mss. have Delga as the dative. 
The nom. Delgu appears in LU. 77^9, the gen. Delgan in Dun 
Delgan, Dundalk. All this points to a declension Delgu, 
g. Delgan, d. Delgae (later Delga), like Mumu, g. Mumen 
(later Muman), d. Mume, Munster. 

7 lói churaig LU., lai churaich YBL., but after the accusa- 
tive aspiration is irregular. 


a dib sliastaib.' ' Is fás ind lue mór-sin doberar lam 
phopa Fergus/ ol Cuchulaind, ■ ar ni fil claideb 
inna intiuch inge claideb crainn. Adcoas dom 
dano,' ol Cuchulaind, ' rogab Ailill a mbáegul inna 
cotlud, héseom 7 Medb. Ocus dorétlaistir 1 a chlaid- 
eb ar Fergus 7 dorat dia araid dia thoschid 2 , 7 
doratad claideb crainn inna intech.' 

Ticc Fergus fosodain. ' Fochen sin, á phopa á 
Fergus,' ol Cuchulaind. ' Dia tomna 3 íasc i n-inbera 4 , 
ro-t-bia eó 5 col-leith araili. Dia ti fall i m-mag, 
ro-t-bia cauuth 6 col-leith alaili. Dorn biroir nó 
femmair, dorn fochlochta, deog de ganim. Techt i 
n-áth ar chenn fir 7 má thecra t'immaire, co comtolae 8 , 
ro-t-bia. > * Is tairisse lim,' ol Fergus. * Ni do biad 
doroachtamar 9 ; rofetamar do threbad sund.' Ar- 
fóim Cuchulaind iarom in n-immarchor 6 Fergus. 

Téit Fergus ass iarom. 10 Anaid Etarcomol oc 
décsin Conculaind. 4 Cid doécci ? ' ol Cuchulaind. 

1 The deponent form is characteristic of Mid. Ir., but what it 
has replaced here is not clear. 

2 toscaid LU., toscead YBL. 
3 tondaYBL., tí LU. 

4 i i b° LU., isna haibnib r isna hindberaib YBL. In 
Mid. Ir. after prepositions the accusative plural tends to be 
replaced by the dative. 

5 mss. hé. 

6 cauth LU. 

7 ar do cend tis YBL. 

8 mss. comthola. 

9 doroctamar LU. 

10 teit iarom remi Fergus YBL. 

D 2 


'Tussii,' ol Etarcomol. ' Mos tairchella ém súil tar 
sodain,' ol Ciichulaind. ' Is ed ón adchiu, 7 ol Etar- 
comol. * Ní fetar ní ar-dot-áigthe do neoch. Ni 
accim di grain ná heruath ná forlonn lino latt. 
Maccóem tuchtach amne co ngaisciud do Fid 1 7 co 
clessaib ségdaib atot-chomnicc. , ' Cia no-m-chane,' 
ol Cúchulaind, ' ní-t-gén-sa fobíth Fergusa. 2 Mani- 
pad do snádad, immurgu, roptis do renga rigthi 7 
do chethramthain scáilti ricfaitis uaim dochom in 
dunaid i ndegaid do charpait.' ' Nách-im-thomaid 
im sodain/ ol Etarcomol. * In cor amrae ronenasc 
.i. comrac fri óenFer, is messe cetacomriccfe frit di 
Feraib Hérenn imbáriieh.' 

idoídLU., doith YBL. 
2 Fergus LU., fer YBL. 




[LU. 68^38-69^36 = YBL. 28^41-28^46.] 

Téit ass iarom. Tintái afrithisi ó Méthiu 7 
Chethiu, a n-asbert 1 fria araid : ' Robágus,' olsé, 
'fíad Fergus comrac fri Coinculaind imbárach. * Ní 
assu dun dano 2 a indnaide. Tói forsna eochu asin 
telaig doirithisi.' Atchí Láeg anísin 7 asbeir fri 
Coinculaind: * Dofil in carpat afrithisi 7 dorala clár 
clé frinn.' * Ní fíach opaid,' ol Cúchulaind. * Ara 
chenn dun sis dond áth co fessamar,' ol Cúchulaind. 3 
6 Ní accobor lemm,' ol Cúchulaind, 'a condaigi 
form. , ' Is écen duitsiu ón/ ol Etarcomol. Benaid 
Cuchulaind in fót bói fo 4 ohossaib, co torchair inna 
lige 7 a iot fora thairr. ' 'Eirg 5 uaim/ ol Cuchulaind. 
4 Is scith lemm glanad mo lám indiut. Fo-t-dáilfind 

1 Lit. when he said, i.e. saying. 

2 The text is uncertain ; YBL. seems to have dun di" ; the 
reading of LU. is not clear. 

3 arachind dun sis dond ath co fiasniar or Cuchulaind 
YBL. ; om. LU. 
4 = foa. 
fair'g LU. ; airgg YBL. 


i n-il-phartib ó chíanaib acht mainbad 1 Fergus/ 
' Ni scarfam in chruth-sa,' ol Etarcomol, ' corruc-sa 
do chenn-su, no co fárcab-sa mo chenn lat-su.' 
1 Is ed ón bias andsom/ ol Cuchulaind. Bentai 
Cúchulaind cona chlaidiub ósa 2 dib n-oxalaib co 
torchair a étach de, 7 ni forbai imma chness. 
' Colla tra/ ol Cuchulaind. ' Aicc/ ol Etarcomol. 
D-an-aidlea Cuchulaind iarom co fogaid in chlaidib 
co sebaind 3 a fblt de, amal bid co n-altain noberr- 
thae. Ni forroim cid drisiuc for toinn do. 'O ropu 
thromdae iarom 7 ropo lenamnach in t-athech, 
bentai hi fossud a mullaig conid-ro-rann corrici a 

Conacci Fergus in carpat sechae 7 in n-oenfer 
and. Tintái Fergus do debuid fri Coinculaind. 
' Olc duit, a siriti,' olsé, 'mo diguin. Is garit mo 
lorg latt,' olsé. ' Ná ba lond frimm, á phopa 
Fergus/ ol Cuchulaind. 4 T-al-léci inna sléchtain co 
ndechaid carpat Fergusa taris co fo thri. * Iarfaig 
dia araid in mé fo-d-rúar.' ' Náthú 5 écin,' ol a arae- 
som. 'Asrubart/ 6 ol Cuchulaind, ' ni regad cor- 

1 acht nipad YBL. In Trip. L. 242 both phrases occur in 
the same passage : maith fer Patraic acht minapad óen, fó 
fer Patraic acht nipad den. 

2 asa LU., isa YBL. 
' sebaid YBL. 

4 A few obscure lines are omitted here, which do not affect 
the sense. 

8 Leg. probably nách tu. 

6 mss. asrnbairt, a Mid.-Ir. corruption of O. Ir. asrubart. 


rucad mo chenn-sa nó co fárcbad-som dano a chenn 
lem-sa. Cia de bad assu lat-su, á phopa Fergus ? * 
ol Cúchulaind. fi Is assu ém lem-sa a ndorónad/ 
ol Fergus, * ore 1 is é-seom robo úallach.' 

Atnaig Fergus iarom id n-erchomail tria di ferid, 
7 berthi i ndead a charpait fadessin don dúnud. 
Intan notéiged tar carrce, noscarad a leth ólailiu 2 ; 
intan ba réid, conrictis afrithissi. 3 D-an-écci Medb. 
6 Ní bóid ind imbert móith-chulióin sin, á Fergus,' 
ol Medb. * Ni tochrad dam dano in t-athech- 
matud,' ol Fergus, ' glieid frissin coin móir nádn- 

Cladair 4 a fert iarom ; sátir a liae ; scribthair a 
ainm n-oguim ; agair a gubae. 

1 mss. tiair. 

2 = d alailiu. 

3 affrissi LU. ; here the double f marks the eclipsed, not the 
aspirated f, a standing for an- ; cf. afrithisi, p. 17, 1. 10. 

4 mss. cladar. 




[LU. 69^37— 70^29 = YBL. 28^48—29^38.] 

' Cia fer fil lib ar chenn Conculaind imbárach ? p 
ol Lugaid. ' Dobérat duit-siu imbárach,' ol Mane 
mac Ailella. i Ní étam nech ara chenn/ ol Medb ; 
4 ro-n-bith essomon 1 laiss co comtastar 2 fer do/ 
Atchotat 3 ón dano. ' Ced leth ragthar úaib,' 
ol Ailill, 'do chuindchid ind fir-sin ar chenn Con- 
culaind?' 'Ní fil i n'Ere,' ol Medb, 'adchotar 
dó, mani tuicther Cúrói Mac Dári nó Nadcrantail 
fénnid.' Bói fer di muintir Chonrói issin phupull.* 
4 Ní terga Cúrói/ olse, 'is lour leiss dodechaid dia 
muintir and.' ' Tiagar co Nadcrantail didiu.' 

1 ron bith essoman YBL., ro bith essem on LU. In the ipv. 
in O. Ir. no- is used to infix a pronoun ; of the substantive verb 
there is unfortunately no example. In Sanctan's Hymn, 1. 22, 
occurs ro-m-bith, but the hymn is preserved only in two late 
MSS. It remains uncertain then whether in the substantive 
verb ro- was used to infix a pronoun, just as it was in the 
future, or whether in these passages ro- is an error for no-. 

2 comthastár LU. 

''' atchotad LU., atcotadh YBL. ; atchotat = ad-d-chotat 
they obtain it, where the infixed pronoun anticipates on. 
4 phupaill LU., pupall YBL. 


Téit Mane Andói cuci. Adfiadat a scéla dó. 
4 Tair linn di giull di inchaib Connacht.' 4 Ni reg- 
sa,' olsé, 'inge ma doberthar Findabair dom.' 
Dotéit leo iarom. Doberat a gaisced i carr 1 a 
airthiur Chonnacht co mbói issin dúnud. 4 Ro-t-bia 
Findabair/ ol Medb, ' ar dul ar chenn ind fir ucut.' 
'D-a-gén,' olsé. Dotéit Lugaid co Coinculaind in 
n-aidchi sin. 'Dotét Nadcrantail ar do chenn-su 
imbárach. Is dirsan duit ; ní-fóilais.' 4 Ní báe sin,' 
ol Cuchulaind. 

Téit Nadcrantail arabárach 2 assin dúnud, 7 berid 
nói mbera culinn fúachtai follscaidi laiss. Is and 
bói Cuchulaind isudiu oc foroim én, 7 a charpat 
inna arrad. Sréid Nadcrantail biur for Coinculaind. 
Clissis Cuchulaind for rind in bera hisin, 7 ni-n-derbai 
di forimim 3 inna n-én. A chumut na ocht mbera aili. 
Intan foceird a nomad mbir, techid ind íall ó Choin- 
chulaind isudiu. Luid Cuchulaind iarom for slicht na 
élle. Cingis iarom for rindris na mberae amal én di 
each biur for araile i n-íarmóracht na n-én arná 4 élaitis. 
Glé la each immurgu ba for teched luid Cuchulaind 
riam-som. í For Cuchulaind uccut,' olsé, 'docóid 
reom-sa for teched.' 'Deithbir son/ ol Medb ; 4 ma 

1 cairr YBL. 
2 mss. arnabarach. 

3 forimim LU., foraim YBL. 

4 arnach. LU., aranach, YBL. Read either arná élaitis 
that they might not escape, or arnách-n-élaitis that they might 
not escape him. . , c : 


r-an-ístis dag-oaic, nf gébad in sirite fri feta.' ' Ba 
sáith la Fergus co nUltaib anísin. Dotét Fíachu 
Mac Firfebe úadib do chose Conculaind. ' Epir 1 
friss,' ol Fergus,' ' ba fíal ndó buith arnaib ócaib, céin 
do-n-géni calmae. Is félju dó immurgu,' ol Fergus, 
1 a imFolach intan teches ria n-óenfiur, ol ní po móo 
a gress do indaas do Ultaib olchenae.' 2 ' Cia 
romóidi sin ? ' ol Cuchulaind. * Nadcrantail/ ol 
Fiachu. * Ced ed nomóided-som, a cless dorignius- 
sa fíadae, ní pu anféliu dom,' 3 ol Cuchulaind. ' Nicon- 
móidfed-som ém acht riobeth 4 arm inna láim. Ná 
fetar-su ém, ní gonaim-se nech cen arm ? Táet 
tra imbárach/ ol Cuchulaind, 'co mbé eter Ochinne 
7 muir, 7 cid moch donté, fo-m-ricfa-sa and 7 ni 
tess 5 nam.' Tairnic Cuchulaind iarom a dáil, ocus 
foceird fáthi n-imbi iar cathais na aidche 7 ni 
airigestar in corthe már bói inna arrad, comméite 
friss fessin. Daratailc etir 7 a brat, 7 sáidid inna 

Tic Nadcrantail fosodin. I fénai brethae arm 
la suide. 6 k Cate Cuchulaind ?' olsé. i Unse sund 

1 mss. apair. 2 mss. archena. 

3 do LU., do, but dom, to me, seems to be required by the 

4 acht, provided that is usually followed by ro- or its equivalent, 
cf., however, act ni bed uall and, WB. 10^27. 

néisLU., theis YBL. 

r > laiside YBL. In O. Ir. suide in the gen. and dat. is a 
fully accented pron. ; in Mid. Ir. it is very frequently attached to 
prep, and pron., do-side to htm, &c. 


tall,' ol Fergus. * Ní pu samlaid do-m-árfas indé/ 
ol Nadcrantail. ' In tú in 1 Cuchulaind ?' * Ocus 
massu mé dano/ ol Cúchulaind. ' Massu thú ém/ 
ol Nadcrantail, ' níconruccaim-se cenn úain bice 
don dúnud ; ní bér do chenn ngillai amulaig 2 / 
'Nícon messe etir/ ol Cuchulaind. ''Eirg a do- 
chum timchell ind aird.' Totét Cúchulaind co 
Láeg. * Commail uilchi smerthain 3 dom-sa latt. 
Ní étar forsin trén-fer comrac frimm cen ulchi/ 
Dognith 4 do. 

Téit ara chenn forsin tulaig. ' Córu limm ón/ 
olsé. 'Déne coir ngascid frim tra/ ol Nadcran- 
tail. ' Ro-t-bia son, co fessamar/ ol Cuchulaind. 
' Focichur-sa aurchor duit/ ol Nadcrantail, ' 7 ni-n- 
imgabae.' ' Ní-n-imgéb acht i n-arddai/ ol Cuchu- 
laind. Foceird Nadcrantail aurchor dó. Lingid 
Cuchulaind i n-arddai riam. ' Is ole duit a imga- 
báil ind aurchora,' ol Nadcrantail. ' Imgabae-su 
mo aurchor-sa i n-arddai dano/ ol Cuchulaind. 
Lécid Cuchulaind in ngae fair, acht ba i n-arddai, 
conid anúas docorastar inna mullach, co lluid 
triit co talmain. ' Amae/ olsé, \ ale ! is tú láech 

1 om. LU. In Cuchulaind the {famous) Cuchulinn. 

2 namulaig LU., namulaich YBL. 

3 smertha YBL.; cf. ulcha smértain LU. 74636 = ulcha 
smerthain YBL. 320:33. 
4 dognite LU., dognithi de YBL. 


as dech fil i ntHérinn,' ol Nadcrantail. Attaat 
cethir maicc fichet dom-sa issin dúnud. Tiag-sa 1 
co n-écius dóib a fil limm di Foilgib. Ocus doreg- 
sa co ndérnae-su mo dichennad, air atbél-sa, dia 
talltar in gae asmo chinn.' * Maith,' ol Cuchulaind, 
1 dotéis dofrithissi/ 

Téit Nadcrantail iarom don dúnud. Dotét each 
ara chenn. 2 " Cate cenn ind riastarthi lat ?' ol each. 
' Anaid, á láechu, co n-éeius mo scéla do mo macc- 
aib, 7 co ndechus moirithisi, 3 co ndern 4 comrac 
fri Coinculaind. , 

TéL 5 ass do saigid Conculaind, 7 doléci a chlaideb 
for Coinculaind. Lingid-side i n-arddai, co mbi in 
corthe, co m-memaid in claideb i ndé. Síabarthae 6 
dm Choincuiaind, amal dorigéni frisna maccu i 
nEmain, 7 lingid Cuchulaind fora sciath-som 
lasodin co mbi a chenn de. Bentai aitherruch 

1 tiagasa LU., tiagso YBL. tiag / will go, ipv. sg. 1 of 

2 mss. chind. 

3 morisi YBL., dorissi LU. In dofrithissi, and mo 
fritMssi here the appropriate possessives are used ; see 
under afrithisi. 

4 mss. dernar, with the Mid.-Ir. deponent ending of the 
I sg. subjunctive. 

5 tiat LU. In Mid. Ir. tiat (by admixture of tét and tiagu) 
is sometimes found for tét, both in ind. and ipv. 

6 mss. siarta. 


inna méde anúas co imblinn. Dotuitet 1 a cethri 2 
gábaiti for talmain. Is andsin iarom asbert 
Cúchulaind inso : 

' Ma dorochair Nadcrantaii, 
Bid formach dond immargail ; 

Apraind cen chath isind uair 
Do Meidb co triun in tsluaig.' 

1 mss. dofuitet, the common Mid.-Ir. form. 

2 In Mid. Ir. cethri becomes the general form for all genders. 
As the gender of gábaiti is unknown, the O.-Ir. form appro-- 
priate here is uncertain. 

( 47 ) 


a. Ní réid dom. a thecht, it is not easy for me so to go. The 
neut. possessive before the verbal noun has the same force 
as an infixed or affixed neut. pron. with the finite verb, 
for which see s.v. maidim. For further examples see 
Thesaurus Palseohibernicus I. 568. 

a, ass, prep, with dat. out of. a before nouns and adjectives 
(but as before each, every) ; with possessive assa ; with 
art. assind, asnaib; ass, out of him, it; essi, out of her; 
essib, out of them. 

ab, g. abae, f. river. 

abae, g. abann, f. river. 

ace, no. 

accobur, g. accobuir, n. desire. Ni accobur lemm, / do not 


acht, but; followed by the subjunctive provided that, acht 
tísed dóib CO áis ferdatad, provided they came (lit. it came 
to them) to the age of manhood. For the impersonal con- 
struction cf. 6 tbanic ddib iarom co dérgud LU. niaó. 

ad-águr, I fear, enclit. -águr ; verb, noun, áigtliiu, g. áigthen, 
also áigsiu, g. áigsen, f. ; ardotáigthe = aran-dot-áigthe, 
for which thou shouldst be feared. 

ad-aig, drives, impels, &c. ; pret. sg. 3 adacht. atnaig(=ad- 
dn-aig) fói, he thrusts him under it, ataagat oc im- 
thascrad, they set to wrestling. 

adaig, g. aidche, f. night. 


adarc, ^. adarcae, f. (i) a horn ; (2) some part of a spear. In 
the latter sense it appears also in YBL. 4038 : Tumais 
iarom German erlainn a gai cona adairc isan abaind, then 
German dipped the handle of his spear with its "horn" 
into the river, and in Laws iv. 226 in cnairsech, da dorn 
dég itir a hiarann ocus an baile a n-egarthar a hadarc 
fnirre (leg. for) a fochair .i. a hurlann, the spear, twelve 
fsts between its iron [head) and the place where its " horn " 
is put on its extremity, i.e., its handle. O'Davoren s.v. 
cnarr has cnarr .i. ga : nt est dá dornn .x. etar a hiarann 
7 a fochair .i. a hurlann. From a comparison of the last 
two passages, it would seem that the adarc was at the 
junction of the shaft (crann) and the handle (irlann), but 
what precisely it was is not clear. In the handles of many 
of the spears preserved in Dublin there are little holes 
perforated to rivet them to the shaft. 

ad-ciu, I see, enclit. -accim; pret. sg. 3 co n-accai; perf. sg. 3 
adcondairc ; perf. pass, adcess, -accas ; fut. sg. 3 adcichi, 
-accigi, pass, adcichestar ; fut. sec. sg. 3 adciched, -acc- 
iged ; pres. subj. sg. 1 adcear, -accar, sg. 3 adcether, 
-accadar, pass. sg. 3 adcestar, -accastar ; past subj. sg. 1 
adceinn, sg. 3 adceth ; verb, noun, aicsiu, g. aicsen, f. 
The narrative tenses are expressed by means of con- : sg. 
3 act. co n-accai, pass, co n-accas. 

ad-comnicc (from ad-com-ánic), lit. it has happened, with an 
infixed pronoun forms a verb of existence : atomchomnicc 
(from ad-dom-chom-nicc), / a?n ; atotchomnicc, thou art : 
atcomnicc, he is ; atacomnicc, they are, etc. 

ad-cosnaim (ad-com-sni-), I strive after, make for, enclit. -as- 
cnaim ; perf. sg. 3 adruchoisséni ; verb, noun ascnam, 
g. ascnamo, m. 

ád-daim, acknowledges, professes, recognizes ; sg. 1, with in- 
fixed neut. pron. atdaimiu ; pret. sg. 3 addámair ; perf. 
sg. 3 adrodamair; fut. sg. 3 addidma ; pres. subj. sg. 3 
addama ; verbal noun aititiu. 


ai-ella, approaches, visits, enclit. -aidlea , Cut. sg. i adelliub 
(in O.-Ir. verbs of class II. prevalently form their future 
like verbs of class III.) : verb, noun adall. adall ocus 
tadall, visiting and revisiting^ corresponding to the follow- 
ing techt ocus tuidecht, going and coming. In adell . . . 
laiss the laiss has no appreciable force ; cf. atdubelliub 
lemm, I shall visit you, Wb. 7^4. 

ad-ethaim, I obtain, seize, atnethat = ad-dn-ethat, they seize 

ad-fét, relates, pi.. 3 adfiadat ; perf. sg. 3 adcúaíd, enclit, 
-écid (from en- co-fáith) ; pret. pass. sg. adfess ; pi. ad- 
fessa ; perf. pass, adcoas ; fut. sg. 3 adfi, pi. 1 adfessam ; 
pres. subj. sg. 3 ad-fe ; subj. corresponding to adcúaid, 
sg. 1, adcous enclit. -ecus. 

&d-ind-naich, leads ; fut. sg. 3 ad-ind-ain, pass, at-dom-indnas- 
tar, I shall be led, Wb. 7^5. céin ad-n-indain in tslige, 
as far as the road shall lead. 

ad-sóini (ath-sóim), I kindle, enclit. -atáim ; verb, noun atód, 
atúd. Mod. Ir. fadaigh, fadadh. 

afrithisi, back again. It is made up of frithissi, ace. of 
frithisse, from frith + éisse, track, and the possessive a. 
Originally the possessive varied according to the subject, 
e.g. ara tisam ar frithisi, that we may come back again, 
LÚ. 55^35. In time the etymological force of the phrase 
came to be no longer felt, and either afrithisi, where a is 
poss. sg. 3 masc. or neut., or doridisi, where do is poss. 
sg. 2, was used without reference to the subject. 

&gaid, drives, celebrates [a festival or a ceremony of mourning 
for the dead) ; perf. sg. 3 roacht. 

aged, g. aigthe, {.face, i n-agaii, against, towards, to meet. 

aicc, no I Cf. ace. 

aicsiu, see ad-ciu. 

aidi == sidi ; a n-anman-aidi, their names, 



aidlea, see ad-ella. 

áil. pleasing, is áil limm, it pleases me. 

aile, neut. aill, another* 

áin, g. ána, f. driving; verb, noun of agim, /drive. 

ainech, enech, g. enig, n. (i) face, (2) honour \ di inchsLib, for 

the honour. 

zingid, protects, enclit. -anich; pret. sg. 3 anacht, rel. anachtae; 
pass, anachtae; perf. sg. 3 roanacht; fut. sg. 3 -ain ; sec. 
fut. sg. 3 noansed ; pres. subj. sg. 3 -ain, pi. 3 -anset ;. 
verb, noun anacul. 

ainm, n. name, inscription. 

airber, f. armful, load. 

airchetal, g. airchetail, 11. poetry, a poem; verb, noun of ar- 
canim, I recite, sing. 

airdirc, conspicuous, illustrious-, a n-airdirci, neut. pi. their 
fa?nous places. 

airdmius, g. airdmessa, rn., calculation, estimate, cuire aird- 
mius tarsin slog, lit. put a?i estimate over the host, i.e. 
make an estimate of the number of the host. 

aire, m. load. 

aire, f. heed, notice, is tabarthi do airi, it is to be taken into 

airegdae, pre-eminent, illustrious', superl. airegdam. 

air-fius, knowledge, cen airfius, unawares. 

airisem, m., verb, noun of ar-sissiur, I stay, rest. 

airliur, I consult] take counsel for, provide for ; cf. arlifim-ni 
na hdcu, we will take measures with the warriors, LU. 
56^43. To this seems to belong ni maith airrailter in 
macrad, the boys are not well dealt with. 


air-scélae, n. a famous tale, 

airther, g. airthir, the east. 

áis, áes, g. áis, n. age. This word is to be distinguished from 
óis, áis, g. disso, áisso, m. folk. In Mod. Ir. there is the 
difference between aois f. and aos m. 

aisndethar, see as-indiut. 

aiss, back: fria aiss, on his back. Cf. cona chroich fria ais, 
with His cross on His back, Atkinson, Passions and 
Homilies, 3309. 

aite, m. foster-father, Mod. Ir. oide. 

aitherruch, again. 

alaile, araile, neut. alaill, another, when not followed by a 
noun ; before a noun a certain, 

ale, an interjection, cf. Acallam na Senórach (Ir. Text. IV. 1), 
11. 6791, 7447, 7622. 

alim, / rear) pret. rel. sg. 3 altae; perf. act. sg. 3 roalt; 
pret. pass, altae ; perf. pass, roalt ; verb, noun altrom, f. 

allaid, n. pi. altai, wild. 

alle andess, on the south. Cf. allae anair on the east, Cormac 
s. v. Mugéme ; allae aniar,07z the west, Cymmrodor xiv. 1 14. 
Later allandess, etc. 

almae, herd. 

altan, f. razor; dat. sg. altain. 

am, indeed, truly. 

amae, an interjection. 

amal, prep, with ace, like; ainiaid, thus. 

ammin, thus. 

ammus, g. aimseo, m. attempt; verb, noun of admidiur, / 
atte?npt. ar ammus, towards. 

E 2 


amne, thus ; often of local relations : fo thuaid amne, to the 
north there. 

amrae, wonderful; compar. aniru. 

amrae brige, lit. wonderful in respeet of value, i.e., a mighty 
tiling. Cf. amra brige Hum Máeldúin, " marvellously do 
1 esteem Maelduin" Rev. Celt. ix. 488; becc mbrige, a 
trifling thing, Liadain and Curithir, p. 24. 

am-ulach, beardless. 

a n-, when (followed by relative -11-). amdar = a mbtar, when 
they were. 

a 11-, what, used before a verbal form (1) as its subject, e.g., 
a ndoronad di maith, what of good has been done ; is a 
mbeó beres a n-as beódu 7 a n-as ségundo, lit. what is 
more lively and more active (?) carry them alive, i.e. those 
who are more lively and more active carry them alive ; 
(2) as object, e.g., a césme, what we suffer-, a ndurigéni 
di maitli, what of good he has done. 

anaim, I remain; verb, noun anad. Mod. Ir. fan. 

an-dess, from the south ; fri Emain andess, to the south of 

ane, p. 14, thus, indeed^). 

áne, f. play ; lorg áne, playing-club. 

an-fial, shameless, disgraceful; compar. anféliu ; for the force 
of the compar. see s. v. assae. 

anim, g. anmae, f. life, soul. 

animgnaid, p. 14, a word of which I have no other example. 
Can it be a corruption of anetargnaid, unknown, strange, 
wonderful ? 

ánrud, m. champion. 

an-sirce, f. unlovableness, savageuess. 

-appad, see at-bath. 


apraind, alas ! apraind cen chath, etc., alas that battle cannot 
now be given to Medb with a third of the host. 

ar, prep, with dat. and ace, aspirates an initial consonant: 
before, for, on account oj ] against (with verbs of defending), 
from (with verbs of taking away) ; arnaib ócaib, before the 
warriors', ar loss, by the point; with suffixed pron. of 3 
pi. airriu, erriu. 

ar, air, conjunction, for. 

arae, ara, g. arad, m. charioteer. 

araill — araill, some— others. 

arapae, arapa, nevertheless', as prep, with gen. on account of . 
From apae, abba, cause, with the prep. ar. 

ar-clich, wards of; pres. subj. pi. 2 araclessid, Wb. 22^18 ; 
verb, noun irchlige, in Mid. Ir. with inserted s, ersclaige. 

As the form here is non-relative, arclich might have been 
expected ; the same irregularity is found in arachliched 
LU. 6obS. 

ár-chú, g. árchon, m. slaughter-hound, bloodhound. There 
is also archu, watchdog. Which of the two is right here is 
not clear. 

ard, high. 

ard, g. aird, n. height. 

ar-dálim, I pour forth, shed. 

ardde, f. height, i n-arddai, on high, upwards. 

ardotáigthe, see ad-águr. 

ar-foim (ar-fo-fem ?), receives; perf. sg. 3 arroet ; verb, noun 
airitiu, g. airiten, f. 

ar-gair, forbids, prevents, checks; perf. sg. 3 arrogart ; verb. 
n. irgaire, n. nád-n-argarad = nád-n-air-ro-garad, past 
subj., with -ro- {one of a kind of whom) he could not 

argat, g. argait, n. silver. 


ar-gníu, I prepare (food); pret. sg. I enclit. -airgénus; 3 sg. 
ipv. ergnad ; verb, noun aurgnani, m. 

arigur, arigini, I perceive. 

ar-légaim, / read aloud \ pies. sg. 3 arléga ; verb, noun 

arm, g. airm, n. weapon. 

arm-grith, g. -gretho, -gretha, m. cry of arms, alarm. 

ár-mag, gen. ármaige, 11. daughter- field, tattle -field. 

ar n-, our. 

ar-nascim, I bind, engage, betroth ; perf. sg. 1 ar-roinasc (from 
ar-ro-nenasc) ; pret. pass, amass ; fut. sg. 1 arnenas ; 
past subj. pass. sg. 3 arnastae. Co n-arnastae a fdesam, 

till his protection was covenanted. 

arrad : i n-arrad = Mid. Ir. i farrad, beside, with. 

ar-sissiur. I rest, stop; verb, noun airisem, m. 

ásaim, I grow; verb, noun as. Mod. Ir. fás, with prothetic f. 

as-biur, / say, enclit. -epur ; pret. sg. 3 asbert, -epert ; perf. 
sg. 3 asrubart, -érbart (from ess-ro-bert) ; pret. pass. 
asbreth, -eprad ; perf. asrobrad, érbrad , fut. sg. 1 asbér, 
-eper; verb, noun epert, g. epertae, f. In later O. Ir. 
there is a tendency to replace ass-, ess- by ad- (the form 
which was used before an infixed pronoun, e.g. atbeir = 
ad-d-beir, he says it), e.g. adrubartmar = asrubartmar, we 
have said, ni aipir = ni epir , he does not say ; aipert = epert, 
saying. Hence in Mod. Ir. abair, say thou ; abairt, speech. 
In orthotonic forms the infixed neut. -d-, it, tended to 
become constant, even where it was meaningless : hence 
Mid. Ir. atbeir (i.e. atbheir), he says, = O. Ir. asbeir ; 
hence comes Mod. Ir. adeirim, deirim. 

ascnam, see ad-cosnaim. 


asindiut (ess-ind-feth-), I set forth, narrate, sg. 3 asindet, 
-aisndet, pi. 3 asindedat, -aisndedat ; perf. s. 3 asrindid, 
pass, asrindes ; fut. sg. 1 asindius, -aisndius ; pi. 3 
asindisset; pres. subj. sg. 3 asind, pi. 3 asindisset ; past 
subj. sg. 3 asindissed ; sg. 3 ipv. pass, aisndethar ; verb. 
noun aisndís, g. aisndisen, f. In this verb ass-, the 
pretonic form of ess-, has spread to the enclitic forms. 

as-lui, escapes ; enclit. -élai. 

assa (as 3 sg. relat. of copula + a his) whose is ; in fer assa 
arm so, the man whose weapon this (so = inso) is. The 
corresponding plural is ata. So in rig ba gaisced = in 
rig ba a gaisced, the king whose armour it was. 

assae, easy, light \ comp. assu. In in assu, etc., the com- 
parative contrasts the notion of the adj. with its opposite, 
it is not easy [but difficult), ni assae, it is not easy, may- 
be used by litotes for it is not possible, cia de bad assu 
lat ? which of the two would you deem the lighter ? 

assoilggi, opens ; pret. sg. 3 assoilgg. Other compounds, 
such as ersolcud (from air-od-solg-), and tuasolcud (from 
to-od-solg-), indicate a resolution into ess-solg-. But r 
atnoilc LU. 134^1, for ad-dn-oilc, with the regular sub- 
stitution of ad- for ess- before the infixed pron., suggests 
that the compound had come to be felt to be ess-olg-. 

ass-oirg, strikes, slays ; pret. sg. 3 assort, perf. sg. 3 ascomort ; 
pret. pass, assort, perf. ascomort; fut. sg. 1 assiurf ; pres. 
subj. sg. 3 assorr ; verb, noun essorcun f. 

at-bail, perishes, dies, enclit. -epil (later -apail) ; perf. sg. 3 
atrubalt, -érbalt; fut. sg. 1 atbél; fut. sec. sg. 3 atbélad ; 
pres. subj. sg. 1 atbel, sg. 3 atbela ; past subj. sg. 1 
atbelainn; verb, noun epeltu, g. epelten, f., later apaltu. 
atbail is properly a transitive verb (ess-bal-) with an 
infixed neut. -d-, e.g. atbail = ad-d-bail. The -d- appears 
clearly after relative -n-, e.g. amal as-in-d-bail, as it 


perishes, Ml. 57010, and after con- in conid-apail (= con- 
did-apail Ml. $2dl. Further in arnách-érbalam-ni, that 
ice may not perish, Wb. 4^1 9, the negative nách proves 
an infixed neuter pronoun. 

at-bath, he perished, died, enclit. -appad, pi. 3 atbathatar ; 
verb, noun apthu, g. apthen f. Like the preceding verb, 
this defective verb contains an infixed ncut. -d-, e.g., 
atbath = at-d-bath, which is clearly seen after relative 
-11- . e.g. as-in-d-bathatar Ml. 36^10, So conidappad 
might be explained like conidapail above; we find, how- 
ever, conappad LU. 65^26. It is not improbable that in 
this verb, the origin of which is not clear, -d- has come in 
from the analogy of the preceding verb. 1 

áth, g. átho, átha. ford. 

athech. aithech, g. aithig, churl, athech-matud, a dog of a 


'Ath Gablae, lit. Ford of the Fork. 

ath-gdite, severely zvour.ded. 

'Ath Grene, a proper name. 

atnaig, see ad-aig. 

atracht, atrcchr, see esc-reg-. 

attáu, I am. The pies. ind. is made up of various forms. 
(1) In orthotonic non-relative position attá, e.g., atá in 
coimdiu, the Lord is. (2) After a negative, etc., with an 
infixed pi on. denoting a dative relation -tá, e.g. ni-m-tha,. 
I have not. (3) After a relative which includes a prepo- 
sition, tá, e.g. i-ta, in which is. (4) In enclisis,. except 
where -tá is required by the preceding rules, n% e..g. nf 
fil taidchcr, there is no return, ni-m-fil, / am nut. 

1 Noteworthy are tie forms adbatha, they died, Ml. 98^8,. 
conidaptha, Rev. Celt, xi. 450, co n-aptha YEL. 58/4, which 
can hardly all be scribal eriors. 


(5) As a relative, fil, file, e.g. iarsin dligud fil indiu, 
according to the ride which exists to-day ; in fochricc file 
do i n-nim, the reward which is to him in Heaven. There 
is also a present Mu, in all positions, expressing use and 
wont. Outside the pres. ind. there is only one set of forms 
in all these functions. 

aurdderg. manip aurdderg limm, p. 12, 1. 17, is obscure to me. 

aurdrach, erdrach, sprite, spectre ; cf. Rev. Celt. xi. 455. 

badb, bodb, g. bodbae, f. a war- goddess, a scald-crow, in the 
form of which the goddess appeared. 

bádim, I submerge, drown ; sg. pres. ind. pass, bátir ; verb. 

noun bádud. 
báe, g. bái, profit, good, ní báe sin, that matters not', cf. ni 

dénaim-sea baa desin LU. 58^44 = ní dénam robríg de 

LL. 62rtio. 
báegnl, g. báeguil, m. danger, hazard, chance; rogab Ailill a 

mbáegul, A. got a chance at them, took them unawares. 

bágid, boasts, threatens ; verb. 11, bag, g. báge f. 

ball, g. baill, m. limb. 

ban-chuire, m. troop of women. 

band, stroke (i.e. the length of the stroke). 

ban-dál, g. -dálae, f. a tryst with a woman. 

ban-trocht, g. bantrochta, n., a company of women. 

bás, g. báis, n. death. 

becc, small. 

béimm, blow, verb. n. of benim; oén-bémmim, with one stroke.. 

-beinn, nobeinn, 1 sg. past subj. of attáu. 

bél, g. beóil, m. lip; pi. lips, mouth. Mod. Ir. beul. 

belach, g. belaig, n. gap, pass. 

ben, g. mná, f. woman* 


bendachaiin, / bit ss, salute ; con-dom-bendachtis, that they 
might greet me. 

bendacht, g. bendachtae and bendachtan, f. blessing. 

beniin, strike, wound, slay; bentai = benaith-i, smites him ; 
perf. sg. 3 robi, pi. 3 robedtar, pass, robith ; 3 sg. sec. fut. 
nobiad : pres. subj. sg. 3 enclit. -ruba ; verb, noun béimm, 
g. béimnie, n. With fo, pp. 2, 3, it seems to mean some- 
thing like attack, but I have no further example of this use. 
Cf. fo-dot-ben, who attacks thee, LU. 73^14. 

benn, f. point ox peak of anything, horn, prong (of a fork). 

bed, pi. bii, alive. 

"bed, living, a mmarb no a mbed do breith ddib, that they 
should be carried to them dead or alive. Cf. cid less ar 
mbed 7 ar mmarb, though we are His in life and in 
death, Wb. 6&20 ; ragaid do bed no do marb, thou shalt 
go alive or dead LL. 66^34 ; robo maith lemsa fis a bii 
no a mairb d'fagbháil uaitsiu, I should like to learn from 
thee whether he is dead or alive, Irische Texte, IV. 126. 

beddae, lively, vigorous, brave. 

beds, still, further. Mod. Ir. fds. 

berim, / carry, 1 bear; pret. sg. 3 -bert, birt, rel. bertae ; 
perf. sg. 3 rouicc, roucc, rucc ; pret. pass, brethae ; perf. 
pass, rouccad, ruccad ; fut. sg. 1 béra, -bar; verb, noun 
. breth, g. brithe, d. brith. 

berraid, shears, clips, shaves. 

bertaigim, / shake, brandish ; bertaigthi = bertaigid-i, he 
shakes it; bertaigthius = bertaigid-us, he shakes them. 

bés, perchance ; bés nípu écen dn, perchance that may not be 
necessary, where nipu is 3 sg. pres. subj. copula. 

bés, g. béso, bésa, m. custom. After is bés, it is a custom, it 
is customary, the following verb is commonly put in the 
indicative without any connecting particle; e.g., is bés 


dúibsi far nUltaib ni réidid, it is a custom of you Ulster- 
men not to travel (lit. it is a custom . . . ye do not travel) 
In this sentence the dat. far nUltaib, lit. to you in your 
Ulstermen, stands in apposition. This is a common idiom 
in O. Ir. In Mid. Ir. the prep, i n- is prefixed, í far 
nUltaib. Cf. Mod. Ir. tá sé 'na righ. 
bét, deed, exploit, often evil deed, crime. 

bethu, g. bethad, f. life. Dia do bethu, Hail, lit. God thy 
life = Mod. Ir. Dia do bheatha. 

-bi, see benim. 

biad, g. biid, n. food. 

T)id, will be, 3 sg. fut. ind. of copula. 

biit, p. 31, not, as usual, they are wont to be, but they continue 
to be, they remain. 

bir, biur, g. bera, n. spit, spear. 

biror, g. biroir, watercress. 

blíadain, g. blíadnae, i. year. 

bóid, V&iH, fo7td , loving. 

bráge, g. brágat, neck, throat. 

brat, g. bruit, d. brot, brut, m. mantle. 

bráth, g. brátho, brátha, m. Doom, co brátb = Mod. Ir. 
go bráth, for ever. 

bráthir, g. bráthar, m., brother. 

bréc, g. breice, f. falsehood \ lie. 

bréfech or bréfnech is a frequent epithet of a spear, but the 
meaning is not quite clear. It is variously explained as 
pollach, perforated, or slabradach, having chains. In 
LU. 53627 brefe na slabraidi is one of the rings of a 
chain attached to the spear, bréfe -means a ring, cf. Sg. 
59613 annulus gl. dígabthach óndí as ánus cuairt .i. brefe 
anulus bréfean, a diminutive from anus, circle, i.e., anulus, 
a small rino; 


Brega. pi. L. g. Breg, Bregia, 
breth, sec berim. 

Bricriu, g, Bricrenn, m., Bricriu, surnamed nem-thengae, 
venom 'tongue, 

brig, g. brige, f., power, force, import, ní mór brig sin, //W 

ij no great matter. Cf. ní dénam brig de, 7£^ j*/ /z<? store 

by it. 
brissirn, I break. 
brot, g. bruit, m. goad, 
bruinne, g. bruinni, m. breast. 

búanfach, g. búanfaig, n., a game of the nature of draughts. 
búaid, g. búada, n. victory, gift, e.g. búaid roisc, gift of 

vision . 
buiden, g. buidne f. troop. 
bun, m. bottom ; opposed to loss, point. 
bunsach, f. rod. The bunsach, p. 2, called also bunsach báise r 

was Cuchulinn's toy-javelin. 

each, gen. cáich, everyone. 
cairptech, g. cairptig, m. a man on a chariot. 
calmae, brave ; bravery. 
canae, cana, n. profit, advantage. 

cani, interrogative particle expecting an affirmative answer 
( = Latin nonne). 

cánim, I revile. 

earn, g. cairn, n. cairn. 

carpat, g. carpait, m. chariot. 

carr, g. cairr, cart, 

carrac. g. cairce, f. rock, 

cath, g. catho, catha, m. battle; also battalion. This last 

sense may have developed from expressions like lin catha,. 

a number sufficient to give battle. 


cathas, g. cathaise, f. watch* 

cate, where ? 

caur, cur, g. caurad, curad, m. hero, 

cauuth, barnacle-goose. 

cech, each, every, g. fern, cacha. Mod Lr. gach. 

ced (from ce, with neut. pron. ed), what. 

cein, as far as, as long as, while, followed by relative n. 

céin mair, O happy, as an interjection, here followed by the 
ace. Originally céin mair probably meant live long, mair 
being 2 sg. ipv. of Hiaraim. In Mid. Ir. we also find céin 
mair, mair apparently being mistaken for the ace. of már, 

ceist, g. cesta f. question. The word is often put before a 
direct question. 

eéle, g. céli, companion, husband or wife ; vassal, a chile, 
the other, in sentences like nibo moo in band oldaas a 
chéle, one stroke was not greater than another ; carad each 
a chéle, let each love the other ; décad dán a chéli, let him 
regard the gift of the other, a ehéle has become so much 
of a phrase that it is used of a feminine or plural as well 
as of a masculine singular subject, uas dun a chele, above 
the fort of the others (i.e., the three giants). 

^elebrad, m. verb, noun of celebraim, I bid farewell to (do). 

cen, prep, with ace, aspirating, without. Mod. Ir. gan. 

Cenandas, g. Cenanso, Kelts. 

cen co n- also cen co, lit. without that; hence though not. 

cenél, g. ceneoil, ceneuil, n. race. 

cenmitha, with ace. (i) besides, (2) except. 

cenn, n. head, ar chiunn, in front, before-, ar chenn, to meet, 
for. Mod. Ir. ceann. 

cerd, g. cerdae. f. (1) art, craft, (2) in the concrete, artizan, 
particularly smith. 


cernach, victorious > an epithet of Conall. 
cert, right, just, fair. 
cét, g. céit, n. hundred, 

ceta-, enclitic cét- ; ceta-comriccim, I first encounter. 
cétamus (cet, first + animus, attempt), in the first place, how- 
ever, moreover, 
Cethe, a place-name. 
cét-gabál, cét-gabáil, f. first taking, 

cethir, four, nom. masc. cethiri?), neut. cethir (aspirating) ; 

gen. masc. and neut. cethre n- (?) ; dat. masc. and neut. 

cethrib ; ace. masc. cethri, neut. cethir; fern. nom. 

cetheoir, cetheora, gen. cetheora n-, dat. cetheoraib, 

ace. cetheora. 
cétnae, preceding the noun, the first, following the noun, the 

same, e.g. in cétnae fer, the first man, in fer cétnae, the 

same man. 
cethrae, g. cethrae, f. cattle', a collective formation from. 

cethir, g. cethrae, f. quadrupeds 
cethramthu, g. cethramthan, {., fourth part, quarter. 
cia, though. 
cia, what ? 

cian, long\ 6 chianaib, just now. 
cían, g. céine, f. a while, iar céin mdir, for a long while. 

cid, 3 sg. pies, or past subj. of copula with ce, though it he,, 
though it were. The corresponding plural of the pres.. 
subj. is cit, though they be. From this cid has developed 
the sense of even, e.g. cid óen liathrdit, even one ball. 
In this sense cit was originally «used before a plural noun, 
e.g. bieit cit geinti hiressich, there will be even faithful 
Gentiles, Wb. 4^40. But when the word had sunk to be a 
mere adverb, cid came to be used without reference to the 
number of a following word, e.g., cid duthrachtaig, even 
devoted, Ml. 80^11, co seichetar cid a comroircniu, so that 
they follow even tlieir errors, Sg. I a2. 


cid dia n-, lit. what is it for which, i.e. why. 

cindas, see indas. 

cingim, / step ; pret. sg. 3 cechaing ; fut. sg. 3 cichis ; pies. 3 rel. ciastae ; past subj. sg. 3 nocéssed; verb. 

noun céim, g. céimme, n. 

clad, g. cluid, m. a trench. 

cladim, / dig; pret. sg. 3 cechlaid, pass, classae ; perf. sg. 3 
rocechlaid, pass, roclass ; pies. subj. pi. 3 -classat ; past 
subj. sg. i noclassinn ; verb, noun claide, f. 

clár, g. cláir, n. board, plank. 

clé, g. m. cli, left, p. 24. To turn the left side of the chariot 

towards Emain was an insult. Cf, Arcliiv fur Celtische- 

Philologie I. 33. 

cless, g. clessa and diss, n. feat. 

clissid, leaps. 

clóenaim, / incline, bend ; verb, noun clóenad. 

closs, see ro-cluiniur. 

cluiche, play ; dat. cluchiu ; cluche-mag, \\.. playing-field. 

cness, skin. 

CO, prep, with ace, to, towards-, cucunn, towards us ; with; 
article, cosinn-, cosna. 

co-crích, g. cocríche, i. joint boundary , boundary of neighbour-- 
ing territory. 

cóem, dear, precious, beautiful. 

cóic— deac, fifteen. 

coicae, g. cóicat, m. fifty, fiche, twenty ^ trichae, thirty, etc.,, 
are nouns followed by gen. pi. 

cóiced, g. cdicid, n. fifth fart, hence one of the five provinces 
of Ireland. 

coimthecht (from com-imm-thecht), f. accompaniment* 

cdinim, I lament, beivail ; verb, noun cóiniud ; cointi = cdinid-i^ 

bewails {keens) him. 


coir, the right way* coir gaiscid, fair fighting ; cf. cóir 
gáithe, a fair wind, 

coirthe, g. coirthi, dat. corthiu, pillar. 

colinn. g. colno, f. flesh, body. 

coll. g. cuill, n. destruction. 

C3lla, go thou I 

colleic, stilly notwithstanding. 

combor, commor, meeting, confluence [of rivers). 

comlonn, g. comluinn, combat. As opposed to écomlonn, it 

signifies a combat in which the two parties are equally 
matched, a fair fight. 

com-méit, g. comméite, f. equal size. 

commit te, 2 sg. ipv. of con-midiur. committe son amal bas 
maith lat, arrange that as you wish : cf. ' ni coimse lim 
dano,' olsé, ' mu met.' ' Commaitte,' ol Patraic, Trip. L. 

comrac, g. comraic, m. encounter, fight. 

-comrasta, see con-riccim. 

comsuidiu, p. 21, meaning obscure, seems the dat. of a noun, 

-comtastar, from -com-ad-di-sestar, 3 sg. pres. subj. pass, of 
condieig, seeks, with perfective -ad-. 

-comtolae, from com-ad-tole, 2 sg. pres. subj. of con-tuili with 

perfective ad-, 
co n- 5 so that, until. 
co n-, prep, with dat., with', with article cosind, cosna. 

con-boing, breaks ; pret. sg. 3 conbobig, -combaig, pass, con- 
bocht ; fut. pass, conbibustar ; pres. subj. sg. 3 -comba; 
past. subj. sg. 3 conbdsad ; verb, noun combach. Cia 
chonbósad-side for écomionn, though he were victorious 
against odds ; cf. conboing airthiu (= forru) each cluchiu, 
he beats them in every game, LU. 59^27. 


con-clich, springs (?) ; fut. sg. 3 conclichfe, p. 23 ; verb, noun 
cuclaige, YBL. cuicligi 95^18 = cluiche LU. 

condieig, condaig (con-di-siag-), seeks, asks, enclit. -cuindig, 
sg. 2 condaigi, pi. 3 condegat ; pret. sg. 3 condiacht ; 
perf. sg. 3 conaitecht (con-ad-di-siacht), enclit. -com- 
tacht ; fut. pi. 3 condesat ; pres. subj. sg. 3 enclit. 
-cuintea (-com-di-sa) ; past subj. sg. 1 condesinn ; verb, 
noun cuindchid, cuinchid. do chuindchid a bendachtae 
cosna maccu, to seek his blessing of the boys. 

•condric, v.l. condarric, p. 22. The correct text is uncertain. 
Perhaps we should read conairic (con-air-ic) it is not every 
one who can get {them) in that way, or possibly cotaairic = 
cot-da-airic, who can get them. 

condúail, g. condúala ; explained by O'Clery to be cadinn- 
dualaigheacht no rionnaidheacht chaoin, according to 
which it would be some kind of engraving. The word also 
occurs in the phrase fethal condúala, Windisch Wb. s.v. 
fethal, and the derived adjective condualach is found as the 
epithet of a shield. 

con-éicnigur, / compel, cotnéicnigedar = cot-dn-éicnigedar, 
he compels him. 

con-éirgim, arise ; verb, noun coméirge n. 

confere. The corresponding word in LL. is crkd,pain, torture. 

oon-gaibim, I hold, secure-, pret. sg. 3 congab ; perf. sg. 3 
conacab, conaggab, conaggaib (con-ad-gab) ; verb, noun 
congbál f. 

«con-gair, calls, summons ; pret. sg. 3 congart ; perf. sg. 3 
conaccart (=con-ad-gart) ; fut. sg. 3 congéra; pres. subj. 
sg. 3 congara ; verb, noun, congrae. 

eongnae, horn. Cf. tri bera congnai, three spears of horn, 
Togail Bruidne DáDerga, ed. Stokes, p. 159 ; cnes congna, 
LL. 82^25 ; congan-chnessach (from congnae-chnessach), 
having a skin of horn. In our text congnae seems to be 
used collectively for the horns of the stag: for his horns 
have filled the whole space between the two shafts of 


66 (íl< jssary. 

charioi. For dia chongnu, p. 23, LL. G;Z> ha> clia 

con-gniu. i help ; ipv. sg. 2 congna ; verb, noun congnam m. 

con-iccim, / am able. The verbal system is made up from 
two roots, orthotopic con-ice-, enclitic -com-ang- ; pres. 
ind. sg*. 1 coniccim, -cumcu, sg. 3 conicc, -cumaing. pi. 3 
conecat, -cumcat, imperf. md. pi. 3 -cumcaitis ; pret. and 
perf. ind. sg. 3 conánic, also deponent conánacuir, enclit. 
-cdimnacuir ; fut. sg. 1 conicub, -cumcub ; fut. sec. sg. 5 
conicfed, -cumcaibed ; prés. .subj. sg. 2 conis, sg. 3 coni, 
-cumai, -cum; past subj. sg. 3 conised, -cuimsed. 

con-meil, nibs, rubs upon (do) ; ipv. sg. 2 commail ; 3. 
conmelt, perf. sg. 3 conammelt (con-ad-melt) ; fut. sg. 3 
conméla ; verb, n. commlith, f. Gf. conammelt saill foa 
n-éim, he had nibbed bacon on the hilt, Cormac s. v, 
Mugeime ; comeilt, Atkinson, Passions and Homilies ;. 
coimleadh sin do rosgaibh a ruin, Keating, Three Shafts, 
p. 6. 

con-midiur, / arrange, adjust ; verb, noun commus, control^ 

Connachta, f. pi. Connaught. 

con-riccim, / come together with, I meet. Conjugated like 
riccim, 2 sg. past subj. -comrasta. In Middle-Irish texts 
both cotriccim and condriccim are common in the same 
sense. Both have arisen from generalizing of forms con- 
taining the infixed neut. pron. -d- ; cotriccim comes from 
cot-d-riccim, condriccim from con-n-d-riccim, where there 
appear both rel. -n- and -d-. 

con-riug, / bind, fasten, sg. 3 conrig ; pret. sg. 3 conreraig,. 
pass, conrecht ; perf. sg. 3 conárrig (=£ con-ad-reraig),. 
pass, conárracht (with double r from the active) ; fut. sg. 2. 
conriris, pass, conrirastar ; pres. subj. sing. 1 conrías \ 
verb, noun cuimrech n. 

con-tuili, deeps, enclit. -cotlai; pret. sg. 3 contuil, -cotail ; 
perf. sg. 3 conatil (con-ad-tuil) ; verb, noun cotlud,. 
g. cotulto. m. 


car, g. cuir, m. a covenant, agreement. 

corcrae, purple. ' 'A • ■ " -■ 

corrici, as far as. It is cor-rici, until thou reachest, petrified 
' into a prepositional phrase. — . . . 

cose, g. coisc, n. reprimanding ; verb. 11. of con-secha. 

coscor, g. coscair, m. triumph. 

cose, up to this, hitherto'. 

coss, g. coisse, {.foot. 

cotlud, g. cotulto, m. sleep, verb, noun of contuili, sleeps. 

crann, g. cruinn, n, (later m.) tree. 

cride, g. cridi, n. heart. 

crich, g. criclie, f. (1) furrow, (2) boundary, (3) territory. 

crichid, comparative crichidiu, an adjective of which the precise 
connotation is uncertain. Cf. Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus 
ir. 292. is crichidiu de, p. 29, seems to mean approxi- 
mately it is the greater achievement. 

cró, eye (of a needle). . * 

croebach, bushy. 

crom-sciath, m. a curved shield. 

cruth, g. crotha, m. form. Dat. in chruth-sin, in that way, 

. . thus. - ' 

cúan, g. cuanae, f. litter. 

Cti-chulaind, g. Conculaind, Culanrís Hound, Cuchulinn. 

cuimse, properly adjusted, equable, cuimse is part. pass, of 
con-midiur, / adjust, determine ; pret. sg. 3 con-midair ; 
perf. sg. 1 conammadar (con-ad-midar), pass, conaimess ; 
. pres. subj. sg. 3 conmestar ; verb, noun commus, g. coimse, 
m. (1) adjustment, e.g. fri commus a mbésa acus a cisa 
dóib, to adjust their customs and their taxes for them, 

- LU. 1 29^29, céin bes i comus coirp 7 anme, lit. as long 

- as he is in proper adjustment of body and soul (i.e. with 

F 2 


body and soul harmoniously united), Cambray Homily, 
Thes. Pal.-hib. n. 244; béim co commus, a properly 
regulated stroke, hence (2) power. 

cuiriur, / put, place, etc, ; pret. sg. 3 corastar ; perf. sg. 3 
rolá ; fut. (supplied from foceird) sg. 3 focicherr ; pres. 
subj. sg. 3 ; enclit. -corathar, verb, noun cor. nicon- 
fóicherr cor dia chinn, he will not stir his head-, cf. ni 
rala cor de, it did not stir, YBL. 9029 ; connách-bói cor 
do chor de, so that it could not stir, YBL. 10031. 

cuirm, g. cormae, n. beer. 

cúl, g. cúil, m. back. 

cúl, g. cúle, f. corner, recess. Cúl Sibrille, Kells, according 
to a note of the scribe. 

cúlad, f. poll (of the head). The dual dí chulaid is used of 
the back of the head, cf. also the plural fort chulatha, 
Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus II. 249. In LU. 8603 occurs 
the phrase co clais a dá chúlad, to the hollow of his polls. 

culén, g. culiúin, culióin, m. whelp. 

culenn, g. culinn, holly. 

culpatach, hooded, from culpait, hood. 

cuman, recollection, is cuman lemm, / remember. 

cumut. a chumut na ocht mbera aili, the same with the other 
eight spits. Cf. Sg. i6i#5, Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus 11., 
167, 27 with note. 

curach, g. curaig, m. a boat. 

Cú-rói, g. Conrói, n. pr. m. Curoi. 

•d-, a particle found after cia, though, and ma, if, when followed 
by an indicative — e.g. ce nu-d-sluindi, though it signifies', 
cia ro-d-batar, though they have been\ ci as-id-biur-sa, 
though /say; ma nu-d-techtid, if ye have ; ma ru-d-bait- 
sius, if I have baptized', ma do-d-rumenatar, if they have 


thought) ceni-d-léci, though it does not permit ; ceni-d- 
accam-ni, though we do not see; mani-d-chretid, if ye do 
not believe. This -d- is not added if there be an infixed 
pronoun. Sometimes in the O. Ir. glosses it is not inserted 
in a compound verb after cia and ma. In the Mid. Ir. 
period it had disappeared. 

dá, two. da aspirating is used in nom. and ace. masc. and in 
gen. masc. and fern., di aspirating in nom. ace. fern., da n- 
eclipsing in nom. ace. and gen. neut., dib n- eclipsing in 
the dat. of all genders. 

dá — deac, twelve. 

dabach, g. daibche, f. vat. 

dag-, deg-, good, only in composition with a following noun — 
e.g. dag-duine, deg-duine, a good man ; dag-gnim, a good 

dáig, dág, déig, dég, (1) nominal preposition with gen., because 
of; dáig ar n-indile, because of our cattle ; (2) conjunction 
followed by relative -n-, e.g. dég ro-m-bu, because he was. 
Also with fo : fodáig, fodéig, in the same sense. 

daimim, / grant, allow ; pret. sg. 3 dámair, pi. damnatar ; 
perf. sg. 3 rodámair ; pass, rodét ; fut. sg. 1 -didem, sg. 2 
-didmae; pres. subj. sg. 3 damaid, -dama. inn-didmae 
th'anacul, lit. will you allow your protection ? i.e. will you 
yield and take your life ? 

dairgdig, dat. of dairg-thech = tech darach, house of oak ? 

dál, g. dálae, f. assembly, meeting, rendezvous. 

daltae, g. daltai, m. fosterling, pupil. 

dam, g. daim, m. ox. dam allaid (also without allaid), stag. 

damnae, material; damnae láich, the material of a warrior. 

damnaim, / subdue, damainti = damnaid-i, subdues him (sc. 
the stag). 

dano, also, then, moreover. 


dástir. used impersonally with imm, is mad, wild, rodássed 
imna eocha, the horses have become wild* 

de, piep. with dat., aspirating, from, of; de, from him, from 
it; di, from her; (linn, from us; diib, from them. 

de, from it, after a comparative corresponds in sense to. Eng. 
the — e.g. mo de, the greater; messa de, the worse. In 
Mid, Ir. the two words are written together mote, messaite 
(where t expresses unaspirated d), whence Mod. Ir. móide, 
etc. In expressions like Mod. Ir. ni truimide loch, an 
lacha, de is repeated with the noun in Old Ir. — e.g. robtar 
erdarcu de dind ulc doratad forru, they were the more 
famous from the evil that had been inflicted on them. But 
in Mid. Ir. the modern construction appears — e.g. ropo mo 
de in firt-sa do dénam, it was the gr-eater for the working 
of this miracle, in a note on Broccan's hymn, 1. 74. 

de. cia de, which of the two. Cf. cechtar de, each of the two ; 
nechtar de, one of the two. 

dead (diad), end; see i ndegaid. 

debuid, g. debtha, f. strife. 

dech, best; superl. of maith. 

dechrad, fury. Cf. la dechrad inna cless LU. 73^12, and 
rodechrad impu, they became furious LL. 405&50. 

-dechus, see tiagu. 

décsiu, see do-éccu. 

déinmech, p. 13, active (?). . 

deithbir, right, proper. 

del cbliss, one of Cuchulimi's weapons, but what it was is not 
clear, diss is the gen. of cless feat. ' deil is found in 
the sense of a rod, cf. Irische Texte in. i. 274. The gen. 
deled appears in cor deled, one of Cuchulinn's feats. 
Cf. dobér-sa mo láim fon deil diss do .i. fon n-ubull 
n-athlegtha n-iarnaide, 7 tecéma i llaind a scéith 7 1 
llaind a étain, 7 béraid comthrom inn nbaill da inchind 


tria ehuladaig, 1 shall put my hand to the del. chliss, to 

wit to the apple of refined iron, and it will light upon the 
front of his shield and the front of his forehead, and it 
will carry a portion of brain equal to the apple through 
the back of his head, LL. 66^29. 

delg, g. delge, n. thorn, pin. 

Delgae, g. Delgan, Deign, 

dénom, see do-gniu. 

deog, g. dige, f. drink. 

dedrad, g. dedraid, m. outlaw, bid lam dedraid dd, it will 
be an outlaid s hand to him, evidently a proverbial 

-derbai, -derban, see do-ror-ban. 

dercaid, g. dercado m. a watchman. 

-dercastar, from de-ro-ecastar, 3 sg. pies. subj. pass, of doécu, 
I see, with infixed -ro-. 

derg-intled, red insertion [interweaving). Another form of 
the phrase is co ndergintslaid, cf. Ir. Text. in. i 264, 
Zimmer, Celt. Zeitschr. in... 295. 

-dérn, -dérnae, see do-gniu. 

-dersaige, 2 sg. pres. subj. of díuschi q.v. ninidersaige, &c, do 

710 1 awake me for a few [ox for one man), awake me, how- 
ever, for a company. It may be noted that in expressing 
command ro- appears in the subjunctive only in compound 
verbs (and in the copula) and only in prohibition. 

Día, g. Dé, m. God. 

dia n-, conjunction, (1) if, with subjunctive mood, (2) when, 
with preterite indicative. 

díardain (diardan) (?), p. 34, seems to come from ordan, dignity, 
with the negative di-, and to mean contempt, acht nammá, 
&c, provided thou dost not treat his words with contempt. 

- dianid, to whom is. 


dí-chennad, beheading. 

dí-chleth, díchlithe, f. hiding, verbal noun do-celim, I hide. 

-dichtheth, was able to go; see s. v. ro- (3). ni dichthim, 
/ cannot go, perfective present corresponding to perf. 
docuaid ; see s. v. ro- (3). 

didem, didmae, see daimim. 

didiu (= di-suidiu), then. 

dí-guin, g. diguin, violating a person' 's honour; verb. n. of 
do guin; cf. is diguin do-m-gonar imáib, LU. 20^25. 

din, protection. 

dindgnae. g. dindgnai, m. height, fortified height. 

dingaib, see do-ingaib. 

dirge, f. straightness ; abstract noun from diriuch, straight. 

dirsan, woe. 

discer, fierce, nimble, cissi slabrae in discer-sa thall, what 
herd is that, the nimble one yonder} For the adjective 
with the article following the noun, cf. huas mo lebrán ind 
linech, Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus II. 290. 

disiu (later adiu with a- from anall) on this side, disiu 7 
anall, on this side and on that; cf. Thesaurus Palaeo- 
hibernicus II. 127, 34. 

di-suidiu, /hwz that, thence. 

ditiu, g. diten, f. covering, protection ; verb, noun of do-eim T 

covers, protects. 

diúscart (2 sg. ipv. of a compound di-od-scart-), remove. 

diuschi, (di-od-sech-), awakes; perf. sg. 3 doriusaig (which 
implies a pret. diusaig), -dersaig. See -dersaige. 

-dn-, infixed pron. of 3 sg. masc, in verbal form with relative 
sense; neut. -d- (aspirating); fern, and pi. -da-. The d 
forms are also used non-relatively after certain preposi- 


tions : con- (for which is substituted cot-), for-, frith-. 
The corresponding non-relative forms are m. sg., -an- 
(after ni -n-), neut. -a- aspirating (after ni the pron. is 
revealed only by the aspiration), fem. and pi. -sn-. In no- 
s-gaib-seom each n-óenlíathróit, p. 3, the infixed pron. 
anticipates the following ace. ; in rafetamar (if it be not 
a corruption of rofetamar), the infixed neut. pron. antici- 
pates the following clause. 

do, prep, with dat., aspirating, to, with affixed pron. 3 sg. 
masc. or neut. do, fem. di, pi. ddib, with possessive dia. 
gudid dia máthair, he beseeches his mother, is di Ultaib 
do, he is of Ulster ■; after the copula, with a pronominal 
subject, this is the regular form of expression when the 
predicate is not a noun or an adjective. Compare the 
following examples — (1) is Dia som domsa, He is God to 
me; air immi ardu-ni de, for we are the higher. (2) is 
ónd A.thir do, He is of the Father. (3) is úadib Crist, 
Christ is from them. 

do, thy ; before a noun beginning with a vowel t, also with 
aspiration th ; after a prep, t, e.g., dot, it, etc. 

do, after a verb of motion, thither, ni madlodmar do, would 
that %ve had not gone thither» Expressions like lotar do 
are common ; also without a verb, e.g., do duit, thither to 
thee, i.e., go thither. It has developed from the prep, do 
with an affixed pronoun. 

do-adbat, tadbat. shows; perf. sg. 3 doárbuid, pass, doárfas ; 
do-m-arfas, appeared to me; past subj. sg. 3 doaidbsed; 
verb. n. taidbsiu, g. taidbsen, f. 

do-aidlea (do-ad-ella), approaches, assails. 

do-airn-gir, tairn-gir, promises ; perf. sg. 1 dorairngiurt, 
sg. 3 dorairngert, pass, dorairngred ; fut. pi. 3 -tairngé- 
rat ; verb, noun tairngire n. 

do-bidcim, I throw. When the accent falls on the preposition, 
r appears for d, e.g., verb, noun dibirciud. 


do -"blur, / bring, enclit. -tabur ; pret. sg. 3 dobert ; peri. 
sg„ 3 douicc, douce, -tucc ; pret. pass, dobreth ; perf. pass. 
douccad, -tueead ; fut. sg. -1 dobér, -tibér ; pies. subj. 
sg. 1 dober; subj. corresponding to the perf., sg. 1 tuc ; 
verb, noun tabart f. In the sense of I give, dobiur has a 
perf. act. dorat, pass., doratad, with the corresponding 
subj- sg. 1 dorat. 

docoid. see tiagu. 

• do-euirethar, (1) puts , throws ; (2) takes to himself , invites; 
pret. sg. 3 docorastar,. -tochrastar ; perf. in sense (1) sg. 3 
doralae, dorala, -tarla, pass, doralad ; perf. in sense (2) 
dorochuirestar ; fut. in sense (1) pi. 3 -dichret (from 
-cerd-) ; fut. in sense (2) sg. 1 docuirifar ; pres. subj. sg. 3 
docorathar; past subj. sg. 3 docorad, -tochrad ; ni tochrad 
glieid, he should not have fought ; verb, noun in sense (1) 
tochur, in sense (2) tochuiriud. In Irish a transitive verb 
with an infixed pronoun may have an intransitive or passive 
sense. Thus, d-a-cuirethar, he comes; cf. to-s-cuirethar 
. . . dochum tire, they come to land, LU. 85614; do-t- 
rala, thou hast come, Reeves' Adamnan, p. 266 ; con-did- 
tarla sechae, until he passes it. Wb. 24^17 ; cf. also LL. 
4^32, Rev. Celt. vi. 183, xiv. 245. The compound is also 
used intransitively — e.g. doeorastar fair dul, it befalls him 
to go, LL. 248*224, for which YBL. 50^6 has dorala for dul, 
it befell him to go. Scotch Gaelic, tachair, happen ; Mod. 
Ir. thárla, Scotch Gaelic, thárladh, happened. 

dochum n-, to, a prepositional phrase followed by the gen., or 
preceded by a possessive — e.g. a dochum, to him ; Mod. Ir. 

do-cumlai (to-com-ud-lu- ?), sets forth ; verb, noun tochomlud. 

do-eccu (di-en-ciu), 1 see; d-an-ecci, sees him; pret. sg. 3 
doécachae ; perf. sg. 3 dorécachae ; perf. pass, dorécas : fut. 
sg. 3 duécigi ; pres. subj. sg. 2 doécaither ; verb, noun 
decsiu f. 

do-ecmalla, -tecmalla, collects; verb, noun tecmallad. In Mid. 
Ii. with methathesis teclamad; Mod. Ir. teaglamadh. 


rdo-ellaim (from dá-eli-), turn aside ; verb, noun diall n. - ■ 

do-érig (di-ess-reg-), strips, lays bare, abandons ; perf. sg. 3 
doréraeht ; .fut. sg. 1 doérus ; verb, noun déirge. doérig 
dia glainini corrici a hdu, he lays bare from his jaw to his 

do-essa, p. 21, 3 sg. pres. ind. of a verb of which I have no 
further instance. Something like traverse, would suit the 

do-etarrat (to-etar-reth-), reaches, seizes ; pret. sg. 3 doetarraid; 
perf. pass, doretarracht (from another root) ; pres. subj. 
sg. 2 -tetarrais; verb, noun tetarracht. It will be seen 
that two distinct roots unite to form the paradigm. 

do -ill, is at hand. 

do-fur-gaib (to-air-gab-),, brings out; perf. sg. 3 dorurgab ; 

sec. fut. sg. 3 -turcébad ; verb, noun tercbál. In dofurgaib 
the f is due to the analogy of compounds, beginning with 
to-fo-, to-for-, which in enclisis became to-, tór-, tuar-. 
Similarly to the enclit. -tuargab (to-od-gab-), raised, was 
formed an orthotonic dofúargab, to -tuasilci (to-od-solg-), 
opens, an orthotonic do-fuasilci, and similarly in many 
other compounds. 

dofrithisi, again. See a'frithisi. 

do-gniu, /do; enclit. -denim ; pret. sg. 3 digéni, later dogéni ; 
- ; perf. sg. 3 dorigéni (for *do-rogéni under the influence of 
digéni), -dergéni; pret, pass, dognith ; perf. pass,, dordnad 
(di-ro-gnith), -dernad; fut. sg. 1 dogén, -digén ; subj. sg. 1 
dognéu, -dén (with infixed -ro- -dern), sg. 3 dogné, -déna ; 
verb, noun dénom, g. dénmo m. 

do-greinn, overtakes, co togrennitis, so that they continued to 

overtake. -.. , . • 

do-gres;S, always. 
dóig, likely.' • - : 

do-in-chosaig (to-irid-com-sech-), instructs ';.' '3 sg. impf. doin- 
choisced ; perf. sg. 3 doririchoisc, and perhaps doindar- 
chosaig ; verb, noun tinchosc. 


do-ingaib (di-ind-gab-), repels, wards off; 2 sg. ipv. dingaib ; 
veib. noun dingbál. 

do-intai (to-ind-sói), turns; verb. n. tintúd, g. tintuda, m. 
do-léci, throws, lets down, t-al-léci inna sléchtain, he pros- 
trates himself. 

do-mathi, threatens; ipv. sg. 2 toinaid; verb, noun tomad r 
g. tomtho. 

do-mel (to-mel-), consumes, spends, enjoys ; perf. sg. I doro- 
mult; verb, noun tomalt f. 

domun. g. domuin, m. world. 

donn, dun, brown. 

do-nochtaim, I lay bare, uncover; verb, noun dinochtad. 

donté, he shall co?ne there, from do-n-d-te, with infixed neut. 
pron. : see dotiag. 

doraid, difficult. 

dorala, enclit. -tarla, came, came to pass, happetied : see 

dorascrad, see under ro- (3). 

dorat, doratad, see do-biur. 

doratailc, p. 42, from do-ro-atailc, cf. lase donatalcfe, g. cum 
delenueris, Ml. 69^6 ; duatalictis, g. fouebantur, Ml. 
130^19, further Ml. 13807, I44<;6. Here the verb carries 
with it the sense of covering; cf. do-ssn-ailgi Patraic fo 
denbrut, Patrick covered them tenderly under one ?nantle. 
Trip. L. 152. 

dorchae, dark. 

do-r-etlaistir, took away. Cf. tétlaithir a chranda do, his 
spears are taken out to him, Ir. Texte II. 1, 177 ; tlethar 
.i. foxal, taking away, O'Davoren, p. 470 (No. 1529) ; 
tlenamain .i. doetlo, ib., p. 474 (No. 1553) ; tletid, "they 

take away," O' Donovan, Suppl. 

doreg, see do-tiag. 


do-ríadaim, I ride forward, sg. 3 dorét. Cf. LU. 85^22, YBL. 


dorn, g. duirn, m. fist, handful, fichis dornaib de seems to 
mean it boiled with bubbles as big as fists therefrom. 

dorochair, see do-tuit. 

do-roich, doroig (to-ro-siag-), comes \ perf. sg. 1 and 3, doro- 
acht. ni do biad doroachtamar, it is not thy food that we 
have come for, 

dorónad, see do-gniu. 

do-ror-ban, hinders, enclit. -derban ; pret. sg. 3 dororbai, 
-derbai ; fut. sg. 1 dororbiu ; verb. n. derbaid. 

dorotsad, see do-tuit. 

dorus, n. door; n. pi. doirsea, v. pi. doirsea, aec. pi. dorus, 
Ml. 46a ; in Mid. Irish it becomes masc. and passes over 
into the declension, g. sg. and n. pi. doruis. i ndorus, 
in front of, before. 

do-scara ( = to-scar-), overthrows, enclit. -tascra. Mid. Ir. 

do-soi, -tói, turns, tói forsna eochu, turn the horses ! 
Cf. dosói in t-ara forsin carpat, LU. 55^36. 

do-srenga, fulls, enclit. -tairrnge ; verb, noun tarrang. 

do-tiag, / come, enclit. -táig, sg. 3 and pi. 2 dotéit, -táet, 
ipv. sg. 3 and pi. 2 táet ; pret. sg. 3 doluid, -tuilid ; perf. 
sg. 3 dodechuid, -tuidchid; pret. pass. 1 doeth ; perf. pass. 
dodechos, -tuidches ; fut. sg. 1 doreg ; sg. 3 -terga ; sec. 
fut. sg. 3 -tergad; pres. subj. sg. 3 dotéi, -tái; subj. cor- 
responding to the perf., pres. sg. 3 dodecha, past sg. 3 
dodichsed, -tuidchissed ; verbal noun tuidecht f. 

*For examples of this form see LU. 68<z20 (facs. doet), 68027 
(facs. dóeth), YBL. 27^23, 30. 

7? Gl4 'SSAKV. 

do-tuit. enclit. -tuit, /ails; pret. sg< 3 docer ; . perf. sg. 3 
dorochair : fut. sg. 3 dotóith (from *to-io-(ithutst), enclit. 
-tdith (from *to-tithutst)\ pi. 3 dotóithsat ; -tdithsat ; sec. 
fin. sg. 3 dotóithsad, -tóithsad ; pies. subj. sg. 3 dototh. 
(from *to-to-tutst) ; pi. 3 enclit. -todsat ; past súbj. sg. 1 
dotodsin ; sg. 3, with infixed -ro-, dorotsad ; verb, noun 
tothim n. (later tuitim, under the influence of tuit, &c). 
The root seems to be ttid* ; in enclisis the compound is 
to-iud-, iii orthotonesis to-to-tud-. In Mid. Ir. dotuit, &c, 
give place to dcfuit, &c. 

drisiuc, p. 38, meaning uncertain : see Wi. TBC, p. 247. 

droch, g. droicli, m. wheel; ace. pi. droehu. 

drui, g. druad, m. druid, wizard. .:■...... 

druidecht, g. druidechtae, f. the druid' s art, magic. 

druimm, g. drommo, dromma. n. back. 

drús, g. druse, f. f p. 34, from the context seems to mean some- 
thing like violence or vehemence. Cf. baithi di druis 7 
tairpthigi, such was his vehemence.^) and his violence, 
YBL. 48012. drus would be a regular abstract formation 
from an adj. druth, which probably gives drúth, fool. 
Cf. also Welsh drud, violent, furious, vehement. 

dúib 7 Cúchulaind, to thee and Cuchulinn. Two things are 
noteworthy here. (1) The idiomatic plural duib, lit. to 
you [two), (thyself) and Cuchulinn ; cf. dunni et Barnaip, 
for me and Barnabas, Wb. 100*1, Thesaurus Palaeohiber- 
nicus 1. 563, with note. (2) The nom. Cuchulaind, cf. 
indib 7 a cétnide, Sg. 18806, and Thesaurus Palseohiber- 
nicus I. 234, note k. The oblique case is also permissible 
— e.g. etarru 7 in gréin, Ml. 11208. 

dul, (1) going, serves as a verb, noun to tiagu ; (2) way, turn r 
in dul-so, this time. 

dún, g. dune, n. fort. 

dúnad, g. dúnaid, n. (1) encampment, (2) artny. 

dúnaim, I shut. 


dús(=do fius), lit. to /earn, introduces an indirect question.. 
dus inn-, to learn whether ', if perchance. 

du-thain, shortlived, transitory ; the opposite of su-thain. 

ebéltair, will be reared '. As this verb does not occur in the 
O. Ir. glosses, its history is obscure. It is possible that 
ebal- originally served as the future stem of alim, Ire/r, 
and that ebéltair is a transformation of ebaltair after the 
model of the é future. But, in the absence of further 
evidence, it is impossible to arrive at a certain conclusion. 

ech, g. eich, ace. pi. eccliu, m. horse. 

écen, f. necessity ; is écen, it is necessary ; écin, indeed . 

éclind, peril. Cf. ar cech n éiclind bas eslinn, against every 
peril which is dangerous, Sanctan's Hymn, 1. 15; atá 
Conchobar a n-eiglinn, Irische Texte 11. 2, 141, where 
another text has éigin. 

ecnae, visible. 

e-comlonn (an-comlonn), an unequal contest ! , a fight against 

echrad, collective fern., horses. 

écraite, f. enmity ; abstract noun from écrae (an-carae), enemy^ 

echtrae, adventure. Loch Echtrae, lit. lake of adventures^ 

-ecus, 1 sg. pres subj. of ad-fet. 

ed, p. 14, = Mod, Irish iseadh, yes. 

Eda, gen. of proper name, The nom. is probably Id, a. name- 
which is found in Tiip. Life, p. 94, and in Martyrology of 
Donegal, p. 194. 

éit, f. flock. 

elae, ela, g. elai, m. swan. 

ém, indeed, truly. 

én, g. edin, eilin, m. bird. 


enech, see ainech. 

eó, g. íach, m. salmon. 

«rchomal, a spancel, according to Cormac s.v. langfiter, applied 
to what shackles the fore-feet of a horse. The id erchomail 
seems to have been the part which went round the leg. 

ergnad, see ar-gniu. 

érim (ess-réim), g. érmae, n. coursing, driving, dagérim, a 
gwd coursing. 

'Eriu, g. 'Erenn, d. 'Ere, 'Erinn, f. Ireland. 

-ermaissim, I attain. Cf. tuisled ho ermaissiu firinne, to fall 
from reaching (i.e. to fail to reach) the truth, M\. 2d$. 
In the glosses the primitive verb armidiur is used in this 
sense, the derivative ermaissim does not occur. 

■er-nocht, stark-naked. 

•err, g. erred, m. warrior {fighting in a chariot). 

ersoilcthe, open, past part, pass of arosailci opens (air-od- 

-er-uath, (air + úath), terror. 

esclu. ar esclu, p. 20, for an expedition (?). It seems to be 
dat. of a noun of which I have no other instance. Or can 
it be a compound of clú, fame ? 

éssi, pi., reins. 

essomun, truce. 

ess-reg-, lit. raise, with infixed pron., before which ad- is 
substituted for ess-, arise. Pres. sing. 1, atomriug, I arise, 
sg. 3, atreig ; atraig, he arises ; atareig, ataraig, she 
arises, pi. 3, ataregat, they arise; pret. sing. 3, atrecht, 
atracht, he arose; future sg. 1, atomres ; verb, noun 
éirge n. But if the accent falls on the prep., then are 
found forms in which no infixed pron. is apparent, e.g., 
ipv. sg. 2, érig ; pret. sg. 3, conérracht. 

étach, g. étaig, n. pi. étaige, n. dress. 


étadaim, -étaim, (en-ted), / obtain; pret. and perf. sg. 3, 
-étade, -étad, pass, etas; subj. pres. pass, -étar; fut. 
pass, étastar ; sec. fut. pass. sg. 3 -étaste ; pres. subj. 
sg. 3 -étada, -éta; verb, noun ét. In O. Ir. étadaim is 
always enclitic. The corresponding orthotonic forms come 
from ad-cotadaim, ad-cotaim (ad-con-ted-). From étaim 
has come Mod. Ir. féadaim. So ní étaim dano techt seen 
nechtar in da roth would best be translated by / cannot go 
past either of the two wheels. 

etar, eter, prep, with ace. between, with affixed pron. of 2 pi. 
etruib. etir 7 a brat, between hint and his viantle. 

(etar-biad, p. 10, would seem to be 3 sg. sec. fut. of a verb 
etar-ban- or etar-ben-, bring to completion ; but I have no 
other instance of the word, 
etar— ocus = Mod. Ir. idir — agus, both — and. 

etarphort, p. 17, an adverb of uncertain meaning, meanwhile (?): 
see Wi. TBC. pp. 723, 826. 

eter. connárbo eter led a nglúasacht, so that they were unable 
to move. Cf. lasinn-etir who is able, Book of Ballymote 
460&32, ni hetear le tiachtan she cannot go, íb. 461&41. 
The history of the word, and in particular its relation to 
Mod. Ir. éidir, féidir, is obscure to me. It is not im- 
probable that the modern forms have arisen from the 
admixture of two words originally distinct. 

etir, eter, at all. 

eu, a brooch. 

fáebor, g. faebuir, edge. 

fáebraige, f. sharpness ; abstract noun from fáebrach, edged, 
from fáebar, edge. 

fail: i fail, beside, followed by gen. 

fannall, g. fainle, f. swallow. 



fárcab, from fo-ro-ad-gab, i sg. pies. subj. of foácaib, leaves, 
with infixed -ro-. 

far n-, bar n- your, 

fas. empty. 

fáthi, p. 42, mantle ? Cf. LL. 119^35 e ^ rogab fathi immi. in 
cétna fathi rogab immi, romaid fair, co torchair a delg 
asa láim. Conid and atbert Cuchulaind: "ni bidba brat 
beres robud, is bidba delg athchummas ehness," where 
fathi is synonymous with brat. 

feb, g. febe, f. distinction, excellence. In feib ocus indil, it 

seems to mean goods, property. 

fecht (= Welsh gzvaith), g. fechtae, f. (1) warlike expedition , 
fight, (2) course, time, fecht n-and, once upon a ti?ne. ind 
fecht-sa and in fecht-sa, now. From in fechtsa came in 
Mid. Ir. ifechtsa, fechtsa, whence by metathesis ifesta, 
festa, whence Mod. Ir. feasta. 

fechtnaige, f. prosperity, from fechtnach, prosperous. 

féin, self. In O. Ir. different forms are found in different 
persons ; sg. 1 féin, fadéin (ML), céin ; sg. 2 féin, fadéin 
(ML); sg. 3 m. fadessin, fessin, f. fadisin (ML), feisine, 
féisne, feisne, feissin, féisin (all in Sg.) ; pi. 1, fesine, 
fanisin ; pi. 2 fadéisne, féisne, fadisin ; pi. 3 fadeisine y 
fadéisne, fadesin (Sg.), feissne, feisne, feissin (Sg.), 
cadesin. As the mark of length is not regularly added,, 
much weight cannot be laid on its absence in some of 
these instances. 

felmacc, g. felmaicc, m. pupil. 

femmur, g. femmair, seaweed. 

féne, i. waggon. 

Féni, pi. the Fene, a class designation of which the precise 
meaning is uncertain, óaic Fene is a term for warrio/s r 
cf. St. Paul Poems I. 6; YBL. 58^37. 


fénnid, m. a warrior. The fénnid here seems to have been a 
sort of reever at the head of a band of fighters (fían). 
Cf. LL. io6a8, fénnid amnas i nHérind intansin .i. 
Cathbad mac Rossa a ainm. sech ba drui-side ba fénnid. 
luid-side dino cúaird fennidechta hi cricha Muman. issed 
dorala-side cona féin do thig a haiti-si .i. ingine JEchach. 
Orta leiss issind oenaidchi a dá haite dec na hingine, 7 
niconfess cia roort in n-orggain. 

fedtar, see foaim. 

fer, g. fir, m. man. 

feraim, I pour, give, ferais snechtae, it poured snow, it snowed. 
ferais failti, he gave welcome. 

ferann, g. ferainn, land. 

ferdatu, g. ferdatad, m. manhood. 

ferenn, m. girdle; ace. pi. fernu. 

fert, f. seems from the context synonymous with fertas, shaft 
of a chariot. Cf. eter di fert in charpait siar, Irische 
Texte II., 2, 242. 

fertas, g. feirtse, f. shaft of a chariot, of which there was one 
on either side, projecting also behind. 

fertas. In for fertais Locha Echtrae, fertas seems to denote a 
has or bank of sand running across the lake. Cf. Tripartite 
Life of St. Patrick, p. 92. 

fescor, evening. 

feta, p. 42, meaning obscure. Cf. féta, Ir. T. 11. 2, 132. 
fethar, see siur. 
fethim, I attend to. 
fíach, g. féich, m. debt. 
Fiachu, g. Fiachach, Fiachu. 

fiad, prep, with dat., aspirating, before, in presence of. 
fiadae, before him. 

fial, generous, modest, noble ; compar. féliu. 
G 2 


fichim, I boil. 

fid, g. fedo, feda, m. wood. 

fidchell, g. fidchille, f. a game of the nature of draughts . 

find, white. 

Findabair, g. Findabrach, f. Findabair. 

findruine, f. (?) some whitish metal, in value between bronze 
and gold. According to Mr. Coffey, it is bronze plated 
with silver, of which many specimens have been found. 

finnae, a hair. 
fiur, see siur. 
fius, see ro-fetar. 

flaith, g. flatho, f. (i) sovereignty, (2) in the concrete, sovereign. 
In Mod. Ir. flaith has become restricted to the latter sense, 
and has changed its gender. 

fled, g. flede, f. feast. 

fo, prep, with dat. and ace, under, throughout, fo thuaid, 
to the north. With art. fond, fonn-, neut. ace. foan-, 
pi. fonaib, fona ; with suffixed pron. of 3 sg. masc. fou, 
foo, fdi. 

fo-acaib (fo-ad-gab-), leaves', enclit. -fácaib, also used in 
orthotonic position; pret. sg. 3 fácab, fácib ; perf. sg. 3 
forácab, forácaib, -farcaib ; perf. pass, forácbad, -farcbad; 
verb, noun fácbál. In foácaib, forácab, etc., the á has 
been introduced from the contracted forms fácaib, etc. 

foaim, I sleep, pass the night; pret. pi. 3 feótar ; verb, noun 

fobíth, fobithin, (1) nominal prep, with gen. because of , (2) con- 
junction, followed by relative 11., because. 

fo-ceird, throws ; pret. sg. 3 focairt ; perf. sg. 3 rolá ; pret. 
pass, focress, perf. rolaad ; fut. sg. 1 focichurr, enclit. 
-fdichiurr, sg. 3 focicherr, enclit. -fdicherr ; pass. sg. 3 
focicherthar, enclit. -fdicherthar ; sec. fut. sg. 3 focichred, 
enclit. -fóichred ; pies. subj. sg. 3 foceirr ; pass. subj. sg. 3 


fo-chen, welcome I 

fo-cessat, they drag off. Cf. fo-t-ro- chess, Saltair na Rami, 

foehétóir (= fo chét-óir, or time), at once. 

fochlocht, g. fochlochta, some sort of waterplant. Cf. fothlacht, 
bibulca, in Hogan's Luibhleabhrdn. 

fodb, g. fuidb, n. arms, spoils. 

fo-dálim, I divide, distribute', verb, noun fodail, f. 

fo-erig (fo-ess-reg-) seems to mean rises to attack (f-an-erig). 

fóessam, g. fóessama (fo-sessom), protection, verb, noun of 
fo-sissiur, / stand by. 

fo-fera, causes; perf. sg. 3 foruar (fo-ro-fer). 

fo-fuabair, fóbair, fuabair (fo-od-ber-), attacks, makes for. 
f-an-opair, attacks him. 

fo-fuar, enclit. -fuar, I found \ pass, fofríth, enclit. -frítíí. 
Serves as the pret. and perf. to fo-gaibim. 

fogaid, edge [of a sword). 

fo-geir, heats \ pret. sg, 3 fo-sn-gert, heated it; verb, noun 
fogerud, g. fogerrtha, Laws. 

foglaimm, g. foglaimme, n. learning \ verb, noun of fo-gliunn 
(sg. 3 fogleinn), I learn. 

foichle, take care, take heed; 3 sg. pies. ind. fuciallathar, 
g. procurat Ml. 1 1463 ; foichlid, care ye for I Ml 68^15 ; 
forochlad, had been expected, Fiacc's Hymn 15 ; fochel- 
fatar, who shall care for, Wb. 30^15. 

fóid, fáed, f. cry. 

-fóilais, see fo-iung. 

foiltne, a hair, 

folach, d. pi. foilgib, hiding, hidden treasure. Cf. is and 
adfead di each folach forfolaich dia tharbugud in maic, 
BB. 260^26. 


folc (= Welsh golch), g. foilce, a wash, anais co foilc 7 co 
fothraic, lit. he remained until a wash and a bath, i.e., 
until he had washed and bathed. Cf. fo nuamaisi figi 
7 bertha 7 foilci 7 fothraicthi, YBL. 37^31. Cf. also 
folcaim, / wash ; verb, noun folcud. 

follscaide, burnt [at the end), from fo 4- loiscthe, part. pass, of 
loscaid, burns. 

folmaisse (?), purposing, attempting-, e.g., ic falmaisi a lecun 
purposing to abandon her, LU. 52^9, ac folmaisi a gona 
trying to wound him, LL. 74a 19. But do folmaissiu 
a báis, p. 12, to have been almost slain. Cf. confolmais- 
siur derchoiniud, I almost despaired, Ml. 50^8. For the 
development of meaning cf. fuapair, attacks, sets to, with 
Mod. Ir. gur dhóbair go leagthí é, that he was near being 
knocked down, Aesop ix. 

folúamain, flying, hovering [in air) ; seems to serve as verb, 
noun to foluur, I fly. 

fo-lugaim, I hide; 3 sg. pres. ind. folugi ; verb, noun folach. 

fo-lung, I support, endure, sg. 3 foloing, -fulaing ; perf. sg. 1 
focóemallag, pi. 3 focóimlachtar ; fut sg. 1 folilus, -fdilus, 
sg 2 -foilais, sg. 3 -foil, pass, folilastar, -fdilastar; sec. 
fut. sg. 1 folilsainn, -fdilsainn ; subj. pres. sg. 1 folds, 
sg. 3 fold, -ful, past sg. 1 foldsainn ; verb, noun fulang, 
fulach. f-al-loing-som-side, it endures him. 

fomus (fo-mess), m. calculation ; cf. béim co fomus, a properly 
calculated stroke, one of Cuchulinn's feats. 

fonoim, I cook; particip. pass, fonaithe ; verb, noun fuine. 

for, prep, with dat. and ace, upon; fair, upon him, it; forn, 
upon us; forru (ace), upon the?n. 

for- aire, f. watching, sentry. 

for-ben, cuts, wounds ; pret. sg. 3 forbí, -forbai. ni forbai, 
from ni-n-forbai, he wounded him not as to his skin. 

for-derg, very red, crimson. 


forgab, g. forgaib, ra. thrust ■; cét-forgab, first thrust. 

for-gemen, m. skin -covering. 

forglide, choice ; an adj. from forglu, a choice. 

for-gniu, I prepare ; pret. sg. 3 -forgéni. 

foriccim (fo-ro-icc- or for-icc- ?), I find \ fo-m-ricfa-sa, thou 
wilt find me\ 3 pi. pres. foreccat ; 3 pi. sec. fut. -fairc- 

foroim en, p. 41, seems to mean fowling, The dat. forimim 
points to a neut. -n- stem. 

fo-riuth, / help (cf. Lat. suc-curro) ; pret. sg. 3 foráith, pi. 3 
foráthatar ; perf. sg. 3 fororaid ; fut. sg. 3 fore. 

formach, g. formaig, n. increase. 
forlonn, overpowering. 

forroim, for forruim, 3 sg. pret. of forruimi (?) -fuirmi, places, 
puts, p. 38. But the obscurity of drisiuc makes the 
meaning of the verb also uncertain. Cf. Wi. TBC, 
pp. 247, 982. 

forrumai, p. 3, came(?). Perhaps for forrubai, 3 sg. perf. of a 
verb akin to O. Ir. dofórban, pervenit. Cf. gaibthi remib 
in certán co forruim for di leiss na gabra, the rag went 

before them till it came upon (?) the haunches of the mare, 
LL. 285650. 

for-ta, is upon, forbiad a ainm Hérinn, his name would be 
upon Ireland. Cf. conid a ainm- side fort á a mbélra-sa, 

so that it is his name which is on this tongue, Book of 
Ballymote, 324^16. 

fortge ( = for-tugae), f. covering. 

fossud a mullaig, used of the crown of the head ; but the precise 
force of fossud is uncertain. A similar phrase is fosad a 
étain, Ir. Text. 11. 2, 242. Cf. also foss-mullach and 
fossad-mullach, Ir. Text. iv. 1, 406. 

fót, g. fóit, m. sod. 


fothraic, p. 26, a bathing. I have met it only in the phrase, 
cf. fothraicim, / bailie, verb, noun fothrocud, g. foth- 
raic the, m. 

fo thri, thrice. 

fri, prep, with ace., towards, against, {like) to, (alo?ig) with, 
{part) with ; frimm, towards me. 

fris-gair, answers, enclit. -frecair ; pret. sg. 3 frisgart; perf. 
sg. 3 frisrogart ; fat. sg. 1 frisgér ; verb, noun frecrae n. 

friss-ailiur, I expect \ 2 pi. enclit. -frithalid. 

friss-indlim (frith-ind-ell-), I prepare, deal with ; fris-indle in 

coin, he tackles the dog. 

fúachte, p. 42, seems to mean sharpened. 

fail, g. fola, f. blood. 

fuit, probably Mid. Ir. form of O. Ir. uit, alas ! 

-fuirmi, 1 places-, pret. sg. 3 forruim ; perf. sg. 3 forruirim, 
pass, foruirmed ; past 3 furruimtis; verb, noun 

fuirec, n. feast. Cf. fuireag .i. fleadh nó fésda, O'Clery. 
fulocht, g. fulachta, cooking-pit. 

gábait, sectio7i(?). I have met it only in the dual dá gabait, 
Ir. T. ii. 1, 138, and in the plural in the present passage, 
and tri gaibti LL. 72^36, nor have I observed the mark 
of length over the first syllable except here. Cf. Wi. TBC, 
p. 987. 

gabul, g. gablae. f. fork. 

gáe, m. spear. 

gáeth, g. gáithe, f. wind. 

1 Of orthotonic forms of the present I have no instance, and 
the analysis of the verb is uncertain. 


gaibim, I take-, 3 sg. impf. nogaibed ; fut. sg. 1 géba, -géb ; 
past subj. sg. 3 nogabad. gaibid fri, withstands. 

gaisced, g. gaiscid, (i) weapons, (2) valour. 

gal, g. gaile, f. valour. 

Galeóin, pi. the Leinstermeji. Cf. LL. 311^20. 

ganem, g. gainme, {.sand. 

garit, short. 

géis, g. geisse, swan. 

geiss, g. geisse, n. pi. gessi, a prohibition or an injunction, 
forbidding a person to do, or enjoining him to do, certain 
things. Such gessi differed with different persons. Their 
nature may be seen from the gessi of Cuchulinn LL. 107^ 
and those of Conaire, Togail Bruidne Dá Derga, ed. 
Stokes, p. 18. The latter tale is instructive for the working 
of such gessi. 

gel, white. 

gelim, I graze; pret. pi. 3 geltatar ; perf. sg. 3 rogelt ; verb. 
noun gleth, g. gleithe, f. 

gell, n. pledge, di giull di inchaib Connacht, for the honour 
of Conn aught. 

gillae, m. lad, servant. 

gin-chróes, gullet. 

glainine, jawbone. 

glaiss, g. glaisse, f. stream. 

glanad, m. cleansing-, verb. n. of glanaid, cleanses. 

glé, clear. 

glenaim, I stick fast; pret. sg. 3 giúil, rel. giúlae ; perf. 

s g- 3 rogiuil ; fut. pi. 3 giulait ; fut. sec. sg. 3 nogiulad ; 

pres. subj. sg. 1 -gleu, pi. 3 rel. glete ; verb, noun 

glenamon, g. glenamnae, f. 
gleó, g. gliad, fight. 
glete, see glenaim. 


glúasacht, g. glúasachtae, f. moving, motion ; verb, noun of 
gluasini, I set in motion, I move. 

glún, g. glúne, n. k?iee. 

gnáth, customary. 

gníni, g. gnímo, gnima, m. deed. 

gnúis, g. gnússo, gnússa, f. countenance, 

gol, g. guil, wailing, weeping, verb, noun of guilim. 

gonaim, / wound, slay, pret. sg. 3 geguin, pass, gditae ; 

iut. sg. 1. -gén, sg. 3 génaid ; fut. sec. sg. 3 nogénad ; 

verb, noun guin, g. gona, n. The perfect act. and pass. 

seem to be supplied from benim : robí, robith. See 

LU. 7o£, where the pret. no-s-geoguin 1. 40 is followed 

by the perf. robitha 1. 45. 
gorm, blue. 

grain, horror. Cf. Ml. 40^16, 17, 18, 22. 
gress, g. greisse, f. insult, dishonour. 
grisaim, I incite. 
gtias, f. peril. 
gubae, lamentation. 
guidini, / beseech ; pret. sg. 3 gáid, rel. gáde ; perf. sg. 

3 rogáid ; pret. pass, gessae ; perf. pass, rogess ; fut. sg. 
1 gigse, -gigius, sg. 3 rel. giges ; fut. sec. sg. 3 no- 

gigsed; pres. subj. sg. 1 -ges, sg. 2 -geiss, sg. 3 -gé, 

rel. ges; past subj. sg. 1 nogessinn ; verb, noun guide f. 

M, in maicc hi, those boys. Here hi seems to have the sense 
of the usual hisin. cf. Ml. 6i<;2. 

i n-, prep, with dat. in\ with ace. into; with art. dat. isind, 
pi. isnaib, ace. masc. fern, isinn-, neut. isa n-, pi. isna. 
With affixed pron. sg. 3 dat. masc. neut. and, fern, indi, 
pi, indib, ace. masc. neut. ind, fern, inte, pi. intiu. it, 

in thy. 


íadaim, 1 close. 

íall, g. éille, f . flock. 

iar n-, prep, with dat. after, along, according to. 

iarmi-fóich, (iarmi-fo-siag-), seeks, asks ; pret. sg. 3 iarmi- 
foacht, -iarfacht ; perf. sg. 3 -riarfacht ; fut. pi. 3 
iarmifdiset; past subj. sg. 3 iarmifdised ; verb, noun 
iarfaigid, g. iarfaichtheo, f. Mod. Ir. fiafruighim with 
prothetic f. 

iarmdracht, pursuit. The corresponding sg. 3 pres. ind. is 
iarmdrat (iarmo-fo-reth). 

iarndae, of iron. 

iarom, afterwards, then. 

iarrair, g. iarra (from iarrara) f. seeking, verb, noun of iar- 

iar-suidiu, after that, afterwards. 

iarthar, g. iarthair, western region, back part. 

íase, g. éisc, m. a fish, also collectively fish. 

íath, g. iatha, meadow, land, region. 

id, g. ide, m. band, or collar, such, e.g., as was put round the 
feet of cattle to shackle them. 

imbert, f. playing, plying \ treatment, verb, noun of im-biur. 

imbliu, g. imblenn, navel. 

imbuarach (in + búarach, from bd -f árach, the tying up of 
the cows for milking) in the morning, imbuarach. means 
early on the morning of the day which is passing, this 
morning-, imbárach = Mod. Ir. amarach means to-morrow 
morning, to-morrow, from the standpoint of to-day, 
e.g., téit imbárach, let him cojne to-morrow morning', ara 
bárach, iarna bárach =Mod. Ir. (lá) 'ma bhárach, means 
next morning, next day, in narrative, e.g., táinic ara 
bárach, he came next morning. 


im-biur (inib-ber-, conjugated like berim), used in various 
senses, imbir in dá mér it bélaib, insert the two fingers 
in thy mouth, St. Gall Incantations, imbeir fidchill, 
he plays draughts, imbeir claideb for nech, lie plies the 
sword on some o?ie. imbeir cless for nech, he practises 
a feat on some one. Verb, noun imbert, f. in bréc do 
imbirt form to practise the deceit upon me. 

im-com-airc, asks ; pret. sg. 3 imcomairc, and deponent 
imcomarcair ; fut. sg. 1 imcoimros : subj. past sg. 3. 
imcoimairsed ; verb, noun imchomarc n. 

im-dig (imb-di-feich), protects; fut. sg. 1 imdius ; verb, noun 
imdegal, imdegail, g. imdeglae, f. 

im-direch, mutual stripping. 

im-folach, hiding. 

imm, prep, with ace. aspirating, about; imbi, about him. 

immaig (= i m-maig, lit. in the plain) = Mod. Ir. amuigh r 
without. If the proposed emendation (p. 12) be right, is 
bethn, etc., would seem to mean, my livelihood is a liveli- 
hood lost, and my householding is a householding in the 
open (i.e., I am without home and substance). 

imm-áin, g. immána, f. driving; verb, noun of imm- aig, drives. 

imm- aire, f. watch. 

immarchor, g. immarchuir, errand, used also of the object of 
the errand, the terms offered. 

imm-ar-gal, g. immargaile, f. strife. 

imma-sínithar dóib, lit. there are mutual stretchings to them,. 
i.e., they grapple with one another. For the impersonal, 
use of the verb, preceded by imma-, and followed by do, 
cf., immorachlui dia claidbib ocus immorobris dia 
sciathaib, their szvords were mutually victorious, and 
their shields were mutually broken, Windisch, Irische 
Texte II. i, 183 ; nímafitir dóib, they knew not one another^ 
Irische Texte I. 17, ómanacca dóib, when they saw one 
another, LL. 256^37. 


imm-ecal, sore afraid. 

imm-forcraid, superfluity. 

imm-imm-gaib, avoids, enclit. -imgaib ; verb, noun imgabál. 
Note that in the orthotonic forms the prep, is repeated 

immudu, lost, gone to waste. Cf. i techt nmdu {leg. immudu ?) 
for the loss, Wb. 16^4, and Mod. Ir. dul amugha to be 

lost.. . . 

immurgu, however ■; in Mid. Ir., immorro. 

imnisse, contention, generally in the phrase imnisse catha, 
but also by itself, e.g., bói i n-imnissiu fri Saxanu, he was 
in warfare against Saxons, Meyer, Voyage of Bran i. 42. 

im-riadaini, / ride round, ride forward. 

im-rind, an adjective of uncertain meaning. Cf. fer n-imrind 
YBL. 42636, da sleig imrindi, Book of Ballymote 470632. 
la fianlaech n-uabrech n-imrind, LL. 276614. 

im-sóim, enclit. -impóim, I turn ; verb, noun impúd, m. imsói 
in carpat fdisom, he turns the chariot under him (sc. 
Cuchulinn). The charioteer wished to make the ceremony 
as short as possible. 

im-thascrad, g. im-thascartha, m, wrestling \ verb, noun of 
imtascraim (imb-to-scar-), I wrestle. 

im-thecht, g. imthechtae, f. wandering, travelling, setting 
forth, adventure, verb, noun of im-tiag. 

im-tiag, I go about, go through, set firth; immatiag = imma- 
n-tiag, with relative n. Mod. Ir. imthigh. 

inairdriuch (gin-airdriuch ?), p. 3, obscure. The sense is 

. indicated by LU. 79640 ; srengais in n-ól don fidba 

chnáma, he drew back the cheek fro?n the jawbone. (In 

Leabhar Brecc, 127^44 fidba cnáma signifies the jawbone 

wherewith Samson slew the Philistines.) 

inar, g. inair, tunic. 


inathar, g. inathair, entrails. 

inber, g. inbir, n. estuary. 

inchaib, see ainech. 

in-coisc, incosig, (ind-con-seg-) instructs, points out; pret.- 
pass. incoissecht ; perf. pass, inrochoissecht ; past. subj. 
sg. 3 incoississed ; 2 sg. ipv. inchoisc ; verb, noun 

ind, the; it is idiomatically used of a particular individual not 
previously mentioned, e.g., in fer, a particular ?nan. 

inda (da, ata) limm, lat, etc. it seems to ?ne, I might have 
thought, etc. In Mid. Ir. indar, dar, atar. Mod. Ir. dar. 
Scotch Gael. ar. 

indaas, pi. indate, pret. sg. 3 imbói, tha?t. 

indaig brot, ply the goad; ind-aig ipv. of a compound ind- 
agim. Cf. aig brot, LL. 109024. Another phrase is 
saig brot, LL. 59 1. 27, etc. 

ind-ala (Mid. Ir. indara, Mod. Ir. an dara), one of two*. 
indala — aile, alaile, the one — the other. When a noun 
does not follow, indala n-ai is used ; from this has 
developed Mod. Ir. darna. 

indas, n., co?tdition i manner. Mod. Ir. ionnus. From ce 
4- indas comes cindas, what is the nature of? how ? = Mod. 
Ir. cionnus. 

indass, p. 2. dobér indass fair = dobér-sa ardmess fuirri in 
LL., / will make a guess at it. In this sense I have no 
other instance of the word. 

indat éside, is it they ? The answer is at é, it is they, with 
a dependent form of the copula. Cf. s. v. nách. 

indé, yesterday. 

i ndé, in two. 

i ndegaid, i ndiaid, after, nominal prepositions, followed by 
the gen., or with possessive pronoun. 


indell, see indlid. 

indile, f. cattle. 

indiu, to-day . 

indlid, prepares, adjusts, yokes ; verb, noun indell. Whether 
the verb was originally a compound (ind-ell-), in which 
case indella should be restored, or whether it was from 
the outset a simple verb formed from indell, I have no 
evidence to show. 

ind-naide, f. waiting-, verb. n. of ind-neuth, I wait. 

indossa, now; from ind foss-sa, from foss, staying. Mod. Ir.. 
anois, from ind foiss. 

inge, but; inge ma = acht ma, unless. 

ingnad (an-gnath), strange. 

in-gnima, capable of action, 

inláa, 3 sg. pres. ind., p. 23, seems to denote some peculiar 
kind of throw, but I have no other example. The corre- 
sponding passage in LL. 6767 runs : Andsain dobretha in 
mac ceird mbic form. Fostaid ocht n-eono dib, 7 
dobretha ceird máir iarsain, 7 fastaid sé eóin dec dib, 
Then the toy practised a little feat on them. He secured 
eight birds of the?n. Afterwards he practised a great feat \, 
and secured sixteen birds of them. 

inn-, interrogative particle (Mod. Tr. an-), eclipsing a following 
verb— -e.g. in coscram-ni (i.e. in goscram-ni), do we 
destroy ? But before forms of the substantive verb anck 
copula beginning with b, im- appears— e.g. imba immalei 
do, will it be at the same time to Him ? Wb. 4&16. Is it 
not ? is expressed by innád, followed by infixed relative n — 
e.g. innád-n-acci, dost thou not see ? 

inso, this; insin, that; also in O. Ir., and more frequently 
later, so, sin. Used (1) as the subject or the object of a 
sentence— e.g. is gnáth inso, this is customary; dogni 
insin, he does that; (2) after a pron. of the third person — - 


e.g. is hé inso titul, this is the title; is si méit insin, that 
is the extent ; (3) is lérither inso, it is so diligently ; is 
samlaid inso, it is thus. 

intádud (ind-sadud), verb, noun of in-sadaim, I throw, 

intech, g. intich, d. intiuch, scabbard. 

intliucht, g. intliuchto, intliuchta, m. understanding, sense. 

irráir = Mod. Ir. araoir, aréir, last night. 

isin, that, after a noun preceded by the article — e.g. in cú 
hísin, that dog. 

i-suidiu, there. 

la, prep, with ace, with, by; with art. lasinn-, neut. lasa n-, 
pi. lasna ; with possessive, lia; limm, with me\ leiss, with 
him, it; lee, with her ; linni, with us ; leo, with them. 

láe, g. lái, n. day. 

láech, g. láich, m. warrior, hero. 

lám, g. lámae, f. hand. From lámae, with broad m, is deve- 
loped regularly the mod. lámha, Aesop, xv. ; láimhe is 
analogical, gaib it láim, undertake. 

Ian, full. 

lár, g. láir, ground; for lár ( = Mod. Ir. ar lár), (1) on the 
ground, (2) in the middle of. 

la-sodin, therewith. 

láth, g. láith, m. hero. 

láth gaile, g. láith gaile, m. hero, warrior, where gaile is gen. 
of gal, f. valour. 

láthraim. In the O, Ir. glosses this verb often glosses expono ; 
in the sense of set forth, expound, it is also found else- 
where. On p. 23, however, it seems to be used of some 
peculiar cast. 


lécim, I let. Mod. Ir. leigini. léicthi = léicid-i, lets it go. 
léicther de, let him be slipped. Cf. roléicsed da conaib, 
they slipped their hounds, Rev. Celt. xiii. 46. 

lenamnach , following persistently. 

léne, g. léned, f. tunic, 

lenim, I follow (with de) ; pret. sg. 3 lil ; perf. sg. 3 rolil ; fut. 
sg. 3 rel. liles, pi. 3 lilit ; past subj. sg. 3 noliad ; verb, 
noun lenomon, g. lenomnae, f. 

ledd, a cutting, hacking. 

lepaid, g. leptha, f. bed. 

less, g. lessa, advantage, need, ro-iccu less, followed by gen., 
/ need ; roiccu a less, 1 need it. roiccu less became a set 
phrase ; hence instead of the original genitive the accusa- 
tive appears after it — e.g. recmait a les sudigud 7 ordugud 
each rechta, we need the establishing and ordering of 
every law, LU. 118029. In ro-sn-ecam a less (p. 22) the 
infixed pronoun is strange. The only possible explanation 
of it would be that it anticipated the object, and from 
ba he less nodmbert, that was the need which brought 
him, LL. 249^, it appears that less was masc, not fern. 
Read roecam a less ? 

less, g. liss, m. a court enclosed by a wall. 

less-ainm, 11. nickname, misname. 

leth, g. leithe, n. side, half. 

lethan, broad; compar. lethu, lethiu. 

lethe : co sescaind each ball de a lethe, so that every limb of 
him sprang apart. From a noun lethe, half ? Cf. mó 
trin is lugu lethi, more than a third and less than a 
half LL. 88^48; fo lethe Laws iv. 328, 5 = f leith 
324, r 4- 

Léthrinne, gen. of proper name: nom., Lethrinn (?). 

liae, g. liac, m. stone. 

líathróit, g. líathróite, f. ball. 


lige, n. lying, bed ; verb, noun of ligid, lies, dorochair inna 
lige, lie fell prostrate. 

lil, see lenim. 

lilmaither, see ro-lamur. 

lin, g. lino, lina, m. number. 

linaim, I Jill. 

lind, g. lenda, n. liquor, liquid, water, used also of a pool, or 

of the sea. There seems to have been also a fem. lind 

gen. linde, dat. ace. lindi ; for examples see LL. 250a, 

lingim, J spring; perf. sg. 3 roleblaing, -róiblaing, pres. 

subj. sg. 3 rel. lias; verb, noun léimm, g. léimme, n. 
linni, see la. 

loch, g. locho, locha, m. lake. 
lóg, luach, g. lóge, n. price, value, pay, reward. 
lond, angry. 

longas, loinges, g. longse, f. exile, for longais, in exile. 
longim, / eat ; verbal noun longud. 

lorg, g. lorge, f. club, is garit mo lorg lat, perhaps a pro- 
verbial expression, you think ?ny club short. 

lorg, g. luirg, m. track. 

loss, point, end. 

lour, enough, is lour leiss dodechaid dia muintir, he thinks 
enough oj his folk have come ; here dodechaid stands for 
what would usually have been a ndodechaid. 

lúamain, flying, flight ; for lúamain, in flight. 

lúan láith, champion* 's light ; a beam of fire supposed to 
spring from a hero's head. 

luas, swijtness. 

lue, f. rudder; ace. lui. 

Lugaid, g. Luigdech, Lugaid. 

luinde, {.fierceness, an abstract noun from lond, fierce. 


mace, m. son 3 bey. 

maccán, g. maccáin, m. boy. 

mac- cd em, m. youth, lad. In am cóem-sa dano, am maccóein, 

if this be the correct reading, there seems to be a play 
upon the etymology of the word : I am fair, J am a mac- 
cóem. Mod. Ir. macaomh. From maccóem is borrowed 
the Welsh macwy. 

machdad, machthad, m. wonder. is m. limm, / wonder. 
nipu machdad, it were no wonder. 

mac-daltae, m. young fosterling. 

macrad, g. macraide, f. a collective from mace. 

mad-, good, in composition with a following verb. Here the 
preterite is used, not the perfect, e.g., i mad-génatar á 
thimthirthidi, ' olsi, ' blessed are his servants J says she, 
Ml. 90612. Preceded by a negative it is equivalent to a 
negative wish, ní mad-airgénus, lit. not well did I pre- 
pare = would that I had not prepared. 

mad, if it be, if it were, 3 sg. present or past subjunctive of 
the copula with ma, if. mad iar n-arailiu, lit. if it be 
according to another, i.e. according to another (versio7t). 

mag, g. maige, 11. plain. 

Mag mBreg, in the eastern portion of ancient Meath. See 
Reeves' Adamnan, p. 74. 

magen, g. maigne, f. place. 

maidim, I break, burst (intrans.) ; pret. sg. 3 memaid; perf. 
sg. 3 romemaid, enclit. -rdimid ; fut. sg. 3 memais, -mema ; 
pies. subj. sg. 3 -má ; verbal noun maidm, g. madmae, n. 
maidid is often used impersonally to signify defeat ; in 
this usage for expresses the vanquished, re n- the victor, 
e.g. maidid for Connachta re Conchobur, the Connaught- 
men are defeated by Conchobar. maitti = maidid-i, with 
affixed neut. pron. Such an affixed pron. is found with 
H 2 


other verbs of motion, e.g. cingthi, he goes, lingthi, lie 
springs. It may be compared with the infixed nent. pron. 
found in similar compound verbs, e.g., dosnicfa co"bir 
cid mall, bid maith immurgu intain do-n-d-icfa, help 
will come to /he///, though it be sloiv ; it will be good, 
however, when it shall so come (lit. it shall come if), 
Wb. 5*5. 

mairnim, /bet/ay; pret. sg. 3 -mert ; perf. sg. 3 romert; fut. 
sg. 3 méraid, -méra; pies. sub. sg. 3 meraid, -mera; 
verb, noun mrath (later brath), g. mraith, n. in ná 
mertamar (p. 27) mad should be supplied from the pre- 
ceding : would that we had not gone thither, nor betrayed. 

maith, good; ni maith ro-m-batar frimm, they have not been 
ki/id to me. 

mánáis, broad-pointed spear. 

manibad, manipad, mainbad, lit. were it not, i.e. but for. Cf. 
Ml. 134&3, 136^2. 

maraim, / remain ; sg. 3 maraid, -mair ; fut. sg. 3 méraid, 
-méra ; fut. sec. nomérainn. 

massu, aspirating, if it be. 

maten, g. maitne, f. morning. Ba moch a m-maten do érgiu, 

lit. their morning was early for rising. 

matud, g. mataid, m. dog, cur. 

mé, /. 

méde, neck. 

medón, middle ; i m-medón, in the midst, 

mend, stammering, 

mesc, intoxicated, confused. 

mescad, g. mesctha, m. verb, noun of mescaim, / stir, agitate, 


messa, worse ; comparative of olc, bad. ni messa de, etc., lit. 
it is not the worse for knowiitg him ; he is a fosterling of 
ours, i.e. we know him all the better that he is a fosterling 
of ours. 

Méthe, a place-name. 

mid-chuach, g. -chúaich, m. mead-goblet. 

mimasc, g. mimaisc, some part of the spear. From the context 
it appears that it lay at the opposite end of the shaft from 
the adarc, but what it was does not appear. In another 
connexion the word appears in Laws I. 184, im chinaid do 
mimaisc, where do mimaisc is explained as do chomla, thy 
gate. O'Davoren s.v. mimasc (No. 1227) gives various 
explanations, and winds up by saying bidh doig co mba 
ainm do trost comla e, it is probably a ?iame for the beam 
of a door. It may be noted that comla is also a name for 
some part of the spear ; see Cymmrodor xiv. 105, 

miscuis, hatred. 

mo, my ; before a vowel m ; after a prep, m — e.g. dm, im, etc. 

nioch, early. 

mdidid, boasts; verb. n. mdidem, g. mdidme, f. The verb is 
transitive; hence I boast is no-m-mdidim; thou boastest, 
no-t-mdidi ; he boasts, n-am-mdidi, etc. 

mdin, main, 1 g. mdnae (mánae), dat. and ace. mdnai, f. bog. 

mdith, soft, tender. 

mdr, mar, great-, compar. moo, md, máo, máa, má; superl. 
mdam, máam ; mdir, compar. of equality, as big as, fol- 
lowed by the ace. 

mos, soon, along with a following verb. 
mucc, g. muicce, f. pig. 
muccaid, g. mucceda, m. szvinehei'd. 
Mugain, f. Conchobor's queen. 

1 For main by mdin, cf. már by mdr. mdin is inflected like 
inis, island, g. inse, d. and a. insi. 


muimme, f. foster-mother. 
muin, the upper part of the back. 
muinter, g. muintire, f. household, folk. 
muir, g. mora, mara, n. sea. 
mullach, top, crozvn of the head. 

-n-, a relative particle, treated before a following consonant 
like an originally final n. Before a simple verb it is 
prefixed, e.g., intain mbis, when he is. But it comes 
after simple copula forms, e.g., hóre as n-amairessach, 
because he is unbelieving. In compound verbs it is infixed 
after the first element, e.g., amal do-n-gni, as he does. 
The principal uses are : — (a) optionally when an accusative 
relation is expressed, e.g., is ed do-n-gni (but also is ed 
dogni), it is this which he does. (But it is not used when 
a nominative relation is expressed, e.g., is é dogni, it is he 
who does.) {b) In reported speech, e.g., asbeir as nduine, 
he says that he is a man. (c) With a dependent sub- 
junctive, e.g., rolamur nu-n-dat-ges, I venture to pray to 
'íhee. id) After adverbs of manner, e.g., condib ferr 
do-m-beraid, that it may be better that ye> give, is 
lérithir inso no-n-guidim, even so diligently do I pray. 
(But neither the relative form nor the relative particle is 
used in expressions like is do is coir, it is to him that it is 
fitting-, is samlaid (= samail + affixed pron.), is coir, it is 
thus that it is fitting ; is iarom is dénti, it is afterwards 
that it is to be do7ie.) (e) After substantives, with the force 
of an oblique case of the relative, e.g., in chruth as coir, 
in the way in which it is fitting', méit do-n-indnagar, 
the extent to which it is bestowed', in tserc nocarim 
(from no-n-carim) Dia, the love ivherewith I love God. 
{f) After conjunctions of a nominal, adjectival, or pro- 
nominal origin : amal, as ; ore, because ; intain, when ; 
céin, céine, while-, a n-, when (but not a n-, what); 
lasse, when ; lassani, when ; arindi, because ; isindi, in 
hat; iarsindi, after. 


-n-, infixed pron. of 1 pi. ; relative form -don-. 

ná, nád, dependent neg., that not. Before an infixed pron. 
nách- is used ; connáchráncatar is from connách-n-ránca- 
tar, so that they reached him not. 

ná (sometimes nách), nor, or, after a preceding negative. 

ná ba, be not, 2 sg. ipv. of copula. 

nach ae, any of them, ni cumci-siu on, a bed nach ae do 
breith, you caiznot [do) that, {namely) bring any of them 

nách. In nach e, not he, and nách nié éicin, not I, indeed, the 
dependent nách is used in a negative answer. This is a 
common idiom in O. Ir., e.g., " anat didiu," ol Ailill. 
"nách ainfet dano," ol Medb. "Let them stay, then," 
said Ailill. " Stay they shall not," said Medb, LU. 56624. 
So the dependent fil is used to answer in fil in interroga- 
tion, e.g., "in fil imbass forosna lat?" or Medb, "fil 
écin," or ind ingen, " Hast thou imbass forosnai (a form 
of divination) ?" said Medb. " I have, indeed," said the 
maiden, LU. 55b 14 1 . So may be explained the enclitic 
cumcim in cumcim écin, / am able, indeed, p. 22. 
náchdíusched = nách-n-díusched, p. 19, that he should 
not awake him. 

naidm, see nascim. 

nammá, only. 

nascim, / bind; perf. sg. 2 ronenasc, verb, noun naidm, g. 
nadmae, n. For the conjugation see ar-nascim. With 
fdessam followed by for, to bind another to protect one. 

náthar, of us two ; cechtar náthar, each of us two. 

nathd, not so, no; cf. to, yes, LU. 25631, LL. 280016. 

nech, anyone. 

1 Further examples will be found in my paper on the 
substantive verb in the Old Irish glosses (Trans. London 
Philological Society, 1899), p. 54 note. 


Necht, g. Nechtae, f. a proper name. According to LU. she 
came from Inber Scene, and her sons were at feud with 
the Ulstermen, because the latter had slain their father. 
Cf. LL. 170&40, Rev. Celt. xvi. 83. 

nechtar, one of the two. 

Ness, g. Nessa, f. Ness, mother of Conchobor. His father was 
Cathbad. For the story of his birth see LL. 106a. 

nessa, nearer; nessam, nearest. The positive is ocus = Mod. 
Ir. fogus. 

ni, g. neich, d. neuch, n. thing; ni as mo, any more; ni bad 
chalmu, more bravely, where bad is 3 sg. past subj. of 

nicon-, not. After nicon- a following word was regularly 
aspirated. In later O. Ir., however, is found the begin- 
ning of eclipsis of a following t : nícondét, does not go, 
Ml. 53017. Cf. the rules for cha, chan, in Ulster Irish in 
Mr. Lloyd's Sgéalaidhe Feammhuighe, p. 117. 

nípo, nirop, 3 sg. pres. subj. of copula, it shall not be. 

no*i n-, nine. 

nomad, ninth. 

nónbor, g. nónbuir, nine ?nen ; Mod. Irish naonbhar. tocumlai 
ass nónbar, lit. he set forth nine men; e.g., he set foi'th 
with nine men. The nom. ndnbar here is idiomatic, cf. 
tánic Ith tri trichait laech dochum Hérend, Ith came 
(with) thrice thirty warriors to Ireland, LL. \2ai, further 
LL. 2&2Ó, 5041. 

conjunction, aspirating. (1) since — from the time thai, 
followed by the preterite, e.g. chretsit, since they 
believed, or by the present of an action still continuing, 
e.g. is cian ds accobor lemm far richtu, / have long 
desired (and still desire) to co?ne to you, Wb. 703 ; 


(2) after, followed by the perfect, e.g. d rocreitset, after 
they had believed, ót digi (p. 10), if the correction be 
right = at digi, since thou art a guest. 

6, úa, prep, with dat. aspirating, from, by. úainn, from us. 

oac, later oc, young, young man, warrior. 

oc, prep, with dat. (= Mod. Ir. ag), at, by, with article ocond, 

Ochinne, a place-name. 

oc-laech, g. oclaich, m. warrior. From oac and láech. The 
ace. dclaig (p. 1) is peculiar. 

oc suidiu, thereat. 

ochtmad, eighth ; also one of eight, like tres, one of three, etc. 

den = Mod. Ir. aon, o?te. 

ogom, g. oguim, m. Ogham. 

dibell, spark. 

ol, indeclinable, says ; olsé, says he ; olsi, says she', olseat, 
say they ; ol Cuchulaind, says Cuchulinn. 

ol, conjunction, because. 

ole, bad. 

ol-chenae, besides. 

oldaas, than. It varies in person, e.g. oldd-sa, than I am ; 
oldái, than thou art', oldaas, than he is; oldate, than 
they are; and also in tense, e.g., olmbdi, than he was; 
olambieid-si, than ye will be. 

digedacht, g. digedachtae, f. hospitality. 

digi, g. diged, m. guest. 

omnae, f. tree, particularly the oak; cf. omna ,1. dair, O'Clery. 
But also omna giuis, pine-tree, Irische Texte ii. 2, 60 ; 
fich-omna, fig-tree, Saltair 11a Rami, 1362. 


ondar, here is; pi. ondat, here are. According to the Book 
of Ballymote, 320Í18, unnse is masc. ; unnsi, fern., onnar, 
neut. How far this rule holds I do not know. The 
present passage (p. 21), at least, is an exception, unless 
del was originally neuter. 

óol, later dl, dat. óul, n. draught, drinking ; serves as verb, 
noun to ibim. 

opad, g. opaid, refusal, fíach opaid (p. 37) was probably some 
technical phrase. 

or, dat. ur. m. margin, boundary. 

ór, g. óir, n. gold. 

ore, úare, because, followed by relative n. 

os, used with an accompanying personal pron. (os mé, OS tú, 
os é, os si, os ni, but 3 pi. oté) in sentences of the 
following type : cotriccixn friss os mé athgóite, I met him 
and 1 wounded ; dobertis cech n-olc form os mese oc 
taircitul cech maith doibsom, they used to inflict every 
evil upon me, though I was prophesying every good to 
the?n, Ml. 54^30 ; delb anmandae foraib ot he marbdai 
calléic, a living form on them, and they dead notwith- 
standing, Ml. 130^3. In Mid. Ir. os is replaced by ocus, 
Mod. Ir. agus. 

os, úas, prep, with dat. aspirating, above, úassae, above him. 

oss, g. uiss, m. deer. 

6, an, g. aue, n. ear. 

oxal, g. oxaile, f. arm-pit. 

pairt, part. 

poll, g. puill, m. hole, áin phuill, driving at a hole, a kind 
of game. 

popa, father, an affectionate form of salutation, particularly to 


praipe, f. quickness ; abstract noun from prapp, quick, sudden. 
in praipi rombitha, with the quickness with which they 
have been slain, cf. in déni assafoiter guth, with the 
swiftness wherewith voice is emitted, Ml. 48^8. 

prim-dun, n. chief fort. 

promaim, / try ; verb, noun promad. BoiTowed from Lat. 


pupall, tent. The gen is pupaill YBL. 50635, the ace. is 
pupull LU. 73^37 = YBL. 30650 ; later the gen. is 
pupla, puiple, the dat. pupaill. This points to an old 
neuter, which afterwards became feminine, focerdat a 
puiplea, they pitch their tents. 

rád, speech, verb, noun of rádim, I speak, 

-ral, 1 sg. pres. subj. corresponding to the perfect rolá, has 
thrown (s.v. foceird) ; con-id-ral friss (p. 32) seems to 
contain an infixed neuter pronoun, and to be an idiomatic 
phrase meaning something like till I fight with him ; but 
I have no other example of it. Cf., however, cor fri 
sluag, Rev. Celt. xii. 96. At LU. 64^32 we find cordiltis 
glied fris, that they might fight with him. -rallá, 
conidrallá (p. 21), may be for con-did-ralá, so that it 
threw him — so that he was thrown, such impersonal 
expressions being common. But the double 1 is strange, 
and the obscurity of the following word makes the meaning 

rannaid, divides. 

rathugud, verb, noun of rathaigim, I perceive. 

refed, cord, 

reg, rega, see tiagu. 

re n-, ria n-, prep, with dat., before ; with suffix, pron. reom, 
before me ; reonn, before us ; 3 sg. masc. or neut. riam, 
fern, remi, pi. remib. 


réid, smooth, easy, ní réid fort, lit. it is not easy upon you, 
i.e. you do not find it easy. 

reng, g. renge, pi. renga, f. the reins of the back. Cf. urchur 
arad tri reing rig, LL. 254^12. 

resiu, con junc, followed by subj., before. 

r ether- derc (rether, sieve -f derc, n. hole), having holes like a 
sieve, riddled like a sieve, con-didn-derna retherderc de, 
lit. till it makes of him one riddled like a sieve. Here the 
infixed pronoun anticipates the object. 

-ri. Perhaps ónáchrí (p. 22) should be emended to ónárí 
(Mid. Ir. nách for ná), from whom it does not succeed, 
i.e. who cannot do it; but I have no other example of 
sucli an idiom. Or read nách-rí, who does not attain 
to it ? 

ri, g. rig. m. king. 

riadaim, I ride, travel. 

riastarthe, distorted. in riastarthe (p. 44) is applied to 
Cuchulinn, because in his rage his body became distorted, 
riastarthir, becomes distorted. The verb is used imper- 
sonally in the passive, followed by the prep, riastarthae 
imbi, he became distorted. The same construction is found 
with other verbs expressing fury or madness. See dástir, 

-ribuilsed, 3 sg. past subj. of lingid, with infixed ro. The form 
is peculiar, and probably corrupt. The subjunctive stem 
of -lingid is less-, and rblessed should have given -roilsed, 
As the preterite is leblaing, so it is possible that the future 
stem was libles ; but I have no example of the future. If 
the future stem was libles-, we should have here confusion 
of the sigmatic future with the sigmatic subjunctive, such 
as is common in Mid. Ir. 

rig, g. riged, lower arm. 

rígain, g. rignae, f. queen. 


rigthi (p. 36), meaning uncertain. If the reading is right, it 
may be an irregular participle from rigim, I stretch, like 
foircthe, from forcanim, / teach. But possibly it is an 
error for ringthi , nom. pi. of past part. pass, of ringim, 
/ tear. 

rim, g. rimae, f. verb, noun of rimim, I count, 

rind, m. point. 

rindris (p. 41) seems collective in the sense of points, but I 
have no other example of the word. 

ro-. The chief uses of this important verbal particle (or its 
equivalents) are as follows: — 

I. It converts a preterite or narrative tense into a perfect — 
e.g. asbert, he said', asrubart, he has said. It should be 
noted, however, that the Irish distinction does not in every 
respect correspond to the English. It is to be noted 
further that in this and in the following uses ro- is not the 
only means of expressing perfectivity. Sometimes another 
particle is employed, such as ad- (frequent in compounds 
beginning with com-), e.g. conacab (from con-ad-gab) to 
con-gaib, holds; conattil (from con-ad-tii), has slept, to 
con-tuli, sleeps ; com-, e.g. as-com-ort, has smitten, to 
ass-oirg, smites; ess-, e.g. ass-ib, has drunk, to ebaid, 
drinks. Sometimes a different root is employed — e.g. 
dorat, has given, dobert, gave, to dobeir, gives ; docúaid, 
has gone, luid, went, to téit, goes. In some verbs there 
is no distinction of perf. and preterite, e.g. tánic, he has 
come or he came, to ticc, comes. Y 

1 In Mid. Ir. this distinction became confused, and the perfect 
came to be used in both senses. In Mod. Ir. a new periphrastic 
perfect has been developed — e.g. tá caithte agam, I have spent; 
bhi caithte agam, I had spent, etc. It might be interesting if 
some one familiar with the spoken language would investigate 
how far the modern perfect corresponds in usage to the old. 



2. It gives the present indicative a perfect sense in general 

sentences, 1 e.g. ho rudeda ind feuil forsnaib cnámaib, 
citabiat iarum in chnámai in fochaid, when the flesh has 
wasted away on the hones , then the bones feel the suffering. 
This refers not to a single instance, but to a whole series. 
In sentences of the same type an imperfect is similarly 
changed to a pluperfect. 

3. It gives the sense of possibility, e.g. cia rnbé cen ni diib, 

ni rubai cenaib huili, though it can be without some of 
them, it cannot be without all of them ; ni dichet, 2 he 
cannot go, but ní téit, he does 7tot go ; rolinad, he was able 
to fill \ dorascrad (from to-ro-scarad), he was able to over- 
throw ; niconructis, they were not able to take (in this 
sense rue supplies the perf. to dobeir) ; ni dergénat mu 
bás, they will not be able to effect my death ; cid ed on 
dorigenmais-ni, even that we could do. 

4. With the subjunctive it is common: 

(a) In wishes — e.g. doroilgea, may he forgive ; conacna 

(from con-ad-gne), ?nay he help. 

(b) After acht, provided that — e.g. acht rocretea, pro- 

vided that he believe; acht docói (di-co-ie), provided 
that he go. 

1 A similar use is to be recognized in the present subjunctive; 
it is very common in the Brehon laws. 

2 -dichet = -di-co-fet, as docuaid = di-co-fáith. As to the 
final t of dichet, it is to be noted that in roots ending in th or 
d ( = dh) there is a strong tendency for the final th or d to 
become t in the singular of the present— e.g. arneut-sa, 
I expect (ar-neth-), dodiut (to-di-fed-), I lead; doadbit, thou 
showest; doadbat, he shows (to-ad-bed-). The explanation is 
this : Before a following s, th and d ( = dh) became regularly t. 
In the above verbs the change would take place regularly before 
a following suffixed pron. : -se, -su, -som, -si. Hence it 
spread : see ' Eriu I. p. 10. 

GLOSSARY. 1 1 1 

(c) After con-, until — e.g. ni scarfam corruc-sa do 

chenn-su no co farcab-sa mo chenn lat-su, we shall 
not part till I carry off thy head or leave my head 
with thee ; co comtolae (from -com-ad-tolae), till 
thou steepest. 

(d) After resiu, before — e.g. molid ocus álgenid resiu 

rocursacha, he praises and soothes before he repri- 

5. Sometimes a past subjunctive is thus turned into a pluper- 

fect — e.g. co mbad notire rodscribad cosse, it would be a 
notary who had written it hitherto ; nipu machdad cé 
dordnad, it were no wonder that he had done. 

6. It is also found with other subjunctives where the usage is 

less defined and the force of the particle ro- (or its equiva- 
lent) is less obvious. 

rob, may it be, 3 sg. pres. subj. of copula. 

robadambed, robad, 3 sg. sec. fut. of copula, followed by the 
infixed pron. of 1 sg. and bed, livings I should be alive. 
For this impersonal construction cf. ni pa-dn-aithrech, he 
will not repent, Wb. 5^9 ; iss-idn-aithrech, he repents, 
Ml. 90^12. 

ro-chian, too long. 

ro-cluiniur, / hear ; perf. sg. 1 rocuala, sg. 3 rocualae ; perf. 
pass, rocloss ; fut. sg. 3 rocechladar, pass. sg. 3 rocech- 
lastar ; pres. subj. sg. 1 rocloor ; past subj. sg. 1 rocloinn; 
verb, noun clúas, g. clúaise f. In enclitic forms ro- is 
absent — e.g. rocluinethar, but ni cluinethar ; so impv. is 
cluinte. As in adciu, the narrative tenses are expressed 
with the aid of con- : co cualae, he heard ; co closs, was 

róen, defeat ; birt a rdena forru, he defeated them. 

ro-fetar, / know, I knew ; fut. sg. 1 rofessur, sg. 3 rofiastar, 
pass, rofessar ; pres. subj. sg. 3 rofestar; past subj. sg. 1 
rofessin ; verb, noun fius, g. fiss or fessa. In enclisis ro- 
is not used — e.g. rofetar, but ni fetar. 


ro-iccu, riccim, / reach \ 3 pi. pres. hid. roeccat; pret. and 
perf. sg. 1 ránac, pass, richt ; fut. sg: 1 riccub; pies, 
subj. sg. 1 ris, sg. 3 ri; past subj. pi. 3 -ristis ; verb, 
noun ríchtu, g. richtan. For the phrase roiccu less see 
s. v. less. 

ro-lá, see fo-ceird. 

ro-lamur, / dare ; pret. and perf. sg. 3 rolámair ; fut. sg. 3 
rolilmaither. In enclisis -laimur, etc., without ro-, are 

rom, too soon. 

ropa, 1 sg. pres. subj. of copula, acht ropa airdirc-se, pro- 
vided I be famous. 

rose, g. roisc, n. eye, 

roth, g. roith, m. wheel. 

ro-t-bia, there will be to thee, thou shalt have. In the fut. and 
sec. fut. of the substantive verb ro-, not no-, is used to 
infix a personal pronoun. 

rout (ro-fot), length (of a cast), rout a lámae, as far as his 
hand could throw it. 

ruccaim, perfective pres. of berim. Here niconruccaim means 
not so much I cannot carry as I am not the man to carry, 
or / am not in the way of carrying. Cf. tréde conaittig 
(con -ad- tig) firinne, three things that truth is wont to 
demand, Triads 77 ; also as-com-ren airi échta tara cenn, 
the ' aire échta' is wont to pay for them, Laws IV. 322 (in 
a general sentence) ; as-com-rir is the perf. of asren, as- 
com-ren, its perfective present. 

-sa, -se (after a preceding palatal consonant), emphasizing 
particle of 1 sg. 

sáidim, I fix. sáidsius = sáidis-us,^*^ it (fern.). 

saigid, making for; verb. n. of saigid, makes for; do saigid, 


sáim, peaceful, restful-, superlative sámam. 

sain, especial, particular, excellent, is sain limsa on, / deem 
that excellent, that pleases me well, bid sain duitsiu, you 
will find it something particular, i.e. something more than 
you bargained for. 

sáith, g. sáitha, grief tribulation ; is sáith limm, it grieves 

sáithech, satisfied, followed by de, or by the genitive. 

samlaid, amlaid, thus. 

sáraigim, I outrage-, no-n-saraigedar, he outrages us. 

scáilim, I separate, scatter. 

scar aid, parts, separates. 

scendim, I spring-, pret. sg. 3 sescaind. 

scíath, g. scéith, m. shield. 

scith, weary, is scith lim, I am loath, dislike (me piget). 

scoraim, I unyoke \ verb, noun scor, m. 

scribend, g. scribind, n. verb, noun of scribaim, I write. 

se, six. 

se, sa, this. (1) After a noun preceded by the article, in fer-sa, 
this man. (2) In some prepositional phrases — e.g. arse, 
therefore; cosse, up to this, hitherto. The dat. siu 
is used by itself in the sense of here, in this world 
(contrasted with tall, there, in the other world), and after 
some prepositions — hisiu, here ; desiu, hence, from this 
side (contrasted with anall ; in Mid. Ir. it becomes adiu), 
resiu, before. 

sebaind. For co sebaind (or sebaid) a folt de, p. 38, LL. 72027 
has topach a folt d chúl co étan de, he cut his hair from 
him from poll to forehead, and this seems to be the general 
sense. The form would come from *sesv . . . . , a redu- 
plicated perfect ; but I have nothing which would throw 
any certain light on it. 


sech, prep, with ace, past, beyond, besides ; seccai, secce, past 
her\ seccu, past them. 

sechndn, prep, with gen., throughout. 

secht n-, seven. 

sechtmad, seventh. 

dae, stately, fair. 

ségond, compar. ségundo, p. 23, an adjective of uncertain 
meaning, active (?). 

seir, g. sered, f. heel. Nom. dual di ferid. 

sescaind, see scendim. 

sesser, six 7?ie?i. 

setir, cani setir latsu, art thou not able ? Cf. eter. 

siabarthir imm, becomes filled with rage. For the construction 
cf. dástir. 

sid, g. side, n. elf -mound, áes side, the fairy folk . 

side, an anaphoric pron., referring back to something mentioned 
before. The nom. and gen. are enclitic ; the dat. and ace. 
are used along with prepositions (including amal), and after 
the comparative, and are fully accented. 1 

1. nom. sg. m. side, sede, f. ade, ede, side, 2 n. side; 3 
pi. sidi, side, adi, ade. 4 These forms are used : 

(a) As the subject to a verb— e.g. atbail side, he dies; 
ni turgabar ade, it (fern.) is not produced; 
adcobrat sidi, they desire. 

1 In Mid. Ir., however, side is often attached to prep. pron. — 
e.g. ddside, assaide, uadibside, &c. In O. Ir. there is only one 
instance— fuiri sidi, Sg. 199^5. 

«Not in Wb. 

3 For neut. side cf. Ml. 89^10, where it refers to Lat. pax. 
= Ir. sid. n. 4 Wb. 5^39. 

GLOSSARY. 1 1 5 

(b) As the subject after predicate of copula — e.g. nitat 

ldra side, they are not enough ; nirbu litir ade, 
it was 7i ot a letter. 

(c) Attached to the pronoun é ; m. éside, f. si éde, si 

ade, pi. ésidi, éside. 

(d) Attached to a verb and going with an infixed 

pron. — e.g. ní-sn-áirmim sidi, /reckon them not; 
do-s-ratsat-som adi, they have applied them. 

2. gen. sg. m. n. sidi, side, adi, ade, f. adi, ade, sidi, 

pi. sidi, side, ide, adi. These forms are attached to a 
noun preceded by a possessive — e.g. a ires sidi, his 
faith ; a áilde ade, her beauty. 

3. dat. sg. m. n. suidiu, f. suidi, pi. suidib. isuidiu, there. 

4. ace. sg. m. n. suide, f. suidi ; in the neut. sodin is used ; 

pi. m. suidiu, f. suidi. lasodain, therewith; frisodain, 
for that; fosodain, in accordance with that. 

sin, that : (1) after a noun preceded by the article, in fer-sin, 
that man. (2) After some prepositions, arsin, on account 
of that, therefore ; assin, therefrom ; cossin, up to that ; 
dosin, thereunto ; iarsin, afterwards ; resin, before that, 

sinim, I stretch; sinith-i, he stretches himself . 

six, long; comparative, sia ; comparative of equality, sithidir. 

sirite, m. sprite (?), a frequent somewhat contemptuous desig- 
nation of Cuchulinn. For the meaning cf. is de atberthe 
in siriti de ara met nodelbad i n-ilrechtaib, hence he 
(Uath) was called the sirite, from the extent to which he 
changed hi?ns elf into many forms, LU. wob. 

sirsan, lucky. Also as an interjection, sirsan, sirsan, gl. euge, 
euge Ml. 55^15. The opposite is dirsan. 

sis, down. 

sist, a while. 

I 2 


siur, g. sethar, f. sister. The aspirated forms are fiur, fethar, 
e.g. mo fiur, my sister. 

slahrad, g. slabraide, f. chain. 

slabrae, f. beast, cattle. 

slaidim, /smite, hew; perf. pass, roslass ; fut. sg. i -selos, 
sg. 3 -sel ; pies. subj. sg. 2 -slaiss. 

slaittius = sladid-us, /ashes them (sc. the horses). 

sléchtan, bowing down* prostration-, verb. n. of siéchtaid. 

sleg, g. slige, f. spear. 

sliab, g. slébe, pi. nom. gen. ace. slébe, 11. mountain. 

Sliab Monduirn, the name of a mountain, cf. Book of Armagh, 

slíassait, g. sliasta, f. thigh. 

shcht, g. slichta, m. track, trace. 

slige, g. sliged, f. road, co tairled in sligid, that he should go 
along the road. 

slissiu, g. slissen, chip, lath. The sciath slissen is Cuchulinn's 
wooden toy shield. 

smerthain. The ulchae smerthain is a false beard fastened 
on to the face ; mine tescta a smera smerthain = munar 
tesccad smir a ndroma is quoted by Stokes, Acallamh 
1. 5213. At LU. 74^38, gabais iarom Cúchulaind Ian 
duirn dind féor 7 dichachain fair, co mbo hed domuined 
each combo ulcha bái lais, then C. took a handful of 
grass and repeated a spell over it, so that everyone thought 
it was a beard that he had. 

snádud, verb, noun of snádim, I protect. 

snáthat, g. snáthaite, f. needle. 

snechtae, g. snechtai, 

sochuide, f. multitude 


sóinmige, f. prosperity ; from sdinmech, prosperous. The 
opposites are ddinmech, ddinmige. 

soisle, f. pride, deriv. of soisil. .1. diomsach 116 menmnach 

som, emphasizing and contrasting pron. of 3 person ; som 
(also seom, sem after a palatal consonant) is found in 
m. 11. sg. and pi. of all genders, si in fern, sg. 1 Jt is 
used — 

(a) As the subj. of a verb, e.g. ni dignem a ndogniat 
som, we will not do what they do ; amal dorigén- 
sat sidi a altram si dénad si goiri ddibsem, as 
they (the persons mentioned) have nurtured her, 
so let her support them. 

{b) As subject after predicate of copula, e.g. dogné- 
su maith frissom ocus bid maith som iarum, 

do thou good to him and he will be good after- 

(c) Attached to the pron. é, sg. m. ésom, f. sisi ? 

pi. ésom. 

(d) Attached to prep. + pron. andsom, essisi ; leosom, 


(e) attached to a verb and going with an infixed 

pron., e.g. d-a-rogart-som nóib, he called him - 
self (in contrast with others) a saint ; ni- 
sii-dérig-si, it does not leave her ; or with a 
suffixed pron. denoting the object, e.g. gnith-i 
sium fadesin, he makes hi?nself. 

(/) After a noun preceded by a possessive, e.g. a 
bésu som, his custo?ns ; a dochum si, to her. 

1 But after predicate of copula I have no example of si ; 
on the contrary, mad fochricc (f.) som, if it be reward, 
Wb. 2#26. 


son, on, that, of something mentioned before. The usage may 
be illustrated from the following passages in the Wiirzburg 
glosses: Praesentia .1. is inon son et á uita, that (sc. prae- 
sentia) is the same as uita, 8di6 ; et qui altari deseruiunt 
.1. ithé son Leuiti, those ai-e the Levites, lodij ; niba 
dimicthe-se lib-si cia bed hi fochidib ar is gloria duibsi on, 
despise vie not though I be in tribulations for that (sc. my 
being in tribulations) is gloria to you, 21^3; is hed on 
consecha-som, it is that (the thing previously mentioned) 
which he corrects, Jdio ; ní forcital óisa foirbthi forchanim 
dúib, ar ni fulngid-si on, it is not the doctrine of perfect 
folk which I teach you, for ye do not endure that, 8^3. In 
the glosses both son and on are common in explanations— 
e.g. inproperia inproperantium tibi ceciderunt super me, 
.1. ol 'Isu son, that is, says Jesus, Wb. 6^30; amal as do 
maccaib .1. iar forcitul on, as unto children, that is after 
teaching, \ba\\?> Followed by anísin : dogni in t-ara 
on anisin, the charioteer does that, LIT. 62^39. In téit 
on, on is a sort of cognate accusative after the verb, 
lit. goes that, i.e. goes as he had been asked to go. 

sotlae, f. haughtiness. 

sréim, / cast. sréth-i = sréid-i, casts it (masc. or neut.) 
sréthius = sréid-us, casts it (fern.). In sréthius fair in 
sleig, the affixed pronoun anticipates the object. 

smith, old, venerable ; superlative sruithem, eldest, noblest. 

sruth, g. srotho, m. stream ; la sruth, with the stream ; frissin 
sruth, down the stream. 

-su (after palatal consonant -siu), emphasizing particle of 2 sg. 

suidim, I sit; pret. sg. 3 siassair; perf. sg. 3 doessid, -dessid; fat. 
sg. 3 seiss; past subj. sg. 3 nosessed ; verb, noun suide n. 

sund, here. 

1 In the Wiirzburg glosses on is used both as subject and as 
object; son, so far as I have noted, only as subject, for in 
32<z20-2i it may be explanatory. 


-t-, infixed pron. of 2 sg., aspirating; relative form, -dot-, 
-dat-, -dit-. 

-tá, cf. attáu. ced tái dóib is an idiomatic phrase, what ails 
you at them ? 

taball, g. taible, f. sling. 

tacair, fitting. 

tadall, approach, visit ; verb, noun of the compound to-ad- 
ell-. Cf. adella. 

tailm, g. telma, f. a sling. Cf. daig*,^r^, gen. degra ; fraigr, 
wall, g. frega ; graig, herd of horses, grega. 

-tairchella, p. 36, meaning uncertain. Perhaps the eye soon 
passes over that, but I have no other instance of such a 

-tairiccim (to-air-icc-), I come ; 3 sg. past subj. co tairsitis, 
that they might reach ; pret. sg. 3 tairnic. tair (from 
*to-air-ic-s-s) is a sigmatic form used as 2 sg. ipv. come. 
Similar formations are atrae (from *ad-t-rek-s-s), arise, 
to atraig, he arises ; comeir, rise up, to conérig, he 
rises up. 

-tairled, 3 sg, past subj. of to-air-ell-, cf. taraill, came\ 
-tairle, diantairle = dian-d-tairle, if it reach him. 

tairling (to-air-leng-), springs down ; pret. sg. 3 doeirbling, 
-tairbling ( = to-air-leblaing) ; pref. sg. 3 doarblaing, 
-tarblaing ( = to-air-ro-leblaing) ; pres. subj. sg. 3 
-tarblais ; verb, noun, tairléim n. 

tairmescaim (to-air-mesc-), I obstruct, hinder, ni rothair- 
mesc a chluche imbi, it interfered not with his play. 

tairpthigre, f. violence. 

-tairthed, 3 sg. ipf. ind. of a compound to-air-reth-, over- 
take, seize ; pret. sg. 3 doarraid, -tarraid, pass, -tarras ; 
pres. subj. pass, -tarrastar. 

taith-béim (to-aith-béim), g. taithbéimme, n. return-stroke, 
one of Cuchulinn's feats. 


talam, g. talman, f. earth. 

tall, there ; ani thall. that there. 

tallaim, / take away. 

tar, prep, with ace, over ; torom, over me. 

taraisse, faithful, trustworthy ; is taraisse lira, / have 
confidence, I believe it, a common formula in the Sagas. 
Cf. is tarisse limm inso,. gl. confidens hoc ipsum 
Wb. 23^18, nip tarisse lat, trust him not, Wb. 30^24. 

-tarla, see do-rala. 

tarngruir, p. 8, may be gen. sg. of a noun tamgror, which 
from the context should mean something like pincers or 
tongs. I have no other instance of the word. 

tarr, f. belly. 

tarrang:, see do-srengra. 

tascrad, gen. tascartha, an overthrowing, verb, noun of do- 

tech, g. tigre, n. house. 

techid, flees ; pret. sg. 3 táich ; fut. sg. 1 -tess ; pres. subj. 
sg. 1 -tess ; verb. n. teched. for teched, in flight. 

tecmall, see do-ecmalla. 

thecra, p. 35, if the text be sound, would be 3 sg. pres. subj. 
of a verb tecraim, but the sense, cover, shelter, does not 
suit here, nor do any of the other meanings assigned to 
tecraim. Perhaps thecra is a scribal error for thecma, 
3 sg. pres. is) subj. of doecmaingr, happens. 

techt, see tiagru. 

teg-lach, g. teg-laich, n. household. 

téit, see tiag-u. 

telach, g. telchae, f. hill. 

Temair, g. Temro, Temra (later Temrach), f. Tara. 

tene, g. tened, f. fire. 

GLOSSARY. 1 2.1 

-terga, see do-tiag-. 

-térnai (to-ess-ro-sní-), escapes-, verb, noun térnam. 
Cf. asroinnea (ess-ro-sni-) gl. euadi Ml. 31^2. 

tét, g. téta, string. 

-tetarrais, see do-etarrat. 

tiag-u, / go (some parts of the pres. are supplied from another 
verb; such are ind. sg. 3, téit, rel. téite, pi. 2, téit ; 
ipv., sg. 3 téit, pi. 2, téit) ; pret. sg. 3, luid ; perf. 
sg. 3, docóid, docúaid ; pret. pass, ethae; perf. pass. 
docoas ; fut. sg. 1 rega, -regr ; pres. subj. sg. 1, tiasu, 
-tias ; sg. 3, -té, téi ; subj. corresponding to docdid, 
sg. 1, -dechus, sg. 3, docdi, -decha ; verb, noun techt, 
g. techtae, f. 

ticcim (to-icc-), / co?ne ; 3 pi. pres. ind. teccat ; pret. and 
perf. sg. 1 tánac ; pret. and peri", pass, ticht ; fut, sg. 1 
ticcub ; fut. sec. sg. 1 ticfinn ; pres. subj. sg. 1 tis, 
sg- 3 ti; past subj. sg. 1 tisinn ; verb, noun tichtu. 

ticsa, raises on high, draws out, takes off, cf. ticsath a 
chruich, let him take up his cross, Thesaurus Palaeo- 
hibernicus ii. 245 ; ticsál ar cruche, taking tip our cross, 
ib. ; t-án-ísca Cuillius asa thruaill, Cuillius drew it 
(the sword) out of its sheath, LU. 65^37 ; intan do-n- 
iscide crand asa thdib, when a tree used to be taken 
out of its side, LU. 86&8 ; bithus do chend dit amal 
tiscar di lun, / will strike your head from you as {the 
head) is taken from a blackbird, LU. 71^23. 

timchell, timchill, g. (to-imb-cell-), circuit. As a prep, 
with the gen., about. 

tindorcun (to-ind-orcun), f. striking, smiting, inda lat 
ba tindorcun, etc., p. 3, seems to mean, you would 
have thought that it was a hammering wherewith each 
hair was driven into his head, with the uprising with 
which he uprose ; cf. the phrase ord essoircne, a hammer 
of smiting. In Cuchulinn's distortions his hair became 


short, cf. rosúig- a folt inna chend, he sucked his hair 
into his head, LU. 103^3, and stood erect in short bristles, 
cf. LU. 8oa8. 

tir, g. tire, n. land. 

tócaib (to-od-gab-), raises ; pret. sg. 3 tdcab ; perf. sg. 3 
dofuarg-ab, -túarg-ab (to-od-ro-grab) ; verb, noun toc- 
bál, g. tdcbálae f. 

tochrad, see do-cuirethar. 

tdeb, g. tdib, m. side, 

tdisech, first, leader. 

-tomna, 3 sg. pres. subj. of a compound to-mon-, " come ; " 
cf. ebrdn ima-rnuinethar meirg* .i. imatimchella 
meirg' agns imman-ith, which rust surrounds and eats, 
Cormac s.v. ebrdn. Welsh myjted, Breton ?nonet, to go. 

to-n-fdir, help us. to-n-fdir is a formation like tair (see 
tairiccim), from a compound to-fo-reth-; cf. Mid. Ir. 
tdrithin, help, and foriuth. 

tongu, I swear \ perf. sg. 3 docuitig ; fut. sg. 3 tithis ; pres. 
subj. sg. 2 -tdis, sg. 3 -to; past subj. sg. 3 -tdissed. 
tongru do dia toinges mo thtiath, I swear by the god by 
whom my people swear. 

tonn, f. skin. 

torad, g. toraid, n. fruit, d. torud. 

torbáis, p. 11, a verbal form of which I have no further ex- 
ample. Something like perceived would suit the context. 

tore, tuirc, m. boar. 

tornocht, stark -naked. 

toschid, taking care of, also ?naintenance , support — e.g. Wb. 
io<ii8, 23, 24, 27. Cf. is airi do-s-roisecht-sa colléir 
im bossán, therefore I have put it carefully away in my 
sporan, LL. 251&5; and it Macedonii do-m-roisech- 
tatar, the Macedonians have supported me, Wb. ijci. 


no-tragrad, p. 25, 3 sg. past subj. of a verb trag-aim, or trá- 
graim. The meaning is not clear. From the context, that 
he should be victorious against odds and that he should 
. . . ait equal force, it is clear that notragrad for is a 
stronger expression than conbósad for. Is it some 
idiomatic use of trágid, exhausts, ebbs ? 

traite, f. quickness ; abstract noun from trait, quick. 
a thraite rombith in cethrar, lit. the quickness of it 
wherewith the four have been slain. For the idiomatic a 
cf. is machthad limm a threte dorérachtid máam 
fírinne, / marvel at the quickness wherewith ye have 
abandoned the yoke of righteousness, Wb. i8r6, and 
Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus 1. 549, note g. 

treb, g. treibe, f. dwelling. 

trebad, g. trebtha, husbanding, householding. 

tress, g. tressa, fight. 

tri, three ; nom. ace. m. tri, nom. ace. n. tri (aspirating) ; gen. 
m. n. tri n- ; dat. m. n. trib ; fern. nom. ace. teoir, teora, 
gen, teora n-, dat. teoraib. 

trían, g. trin, n. third part. 

triar, g. triir, trir, three persons, a triur, lit. in their three 
— i.e. all. 

trichae, g. trichat, m. thirty, trichae cét, lit. thirty hun- 
dreds, a term for a division of land; cf. Laws vi. 753, 
commonly translated cantred. 

triit, through him. co m-memaid a druim triit, lit. so that 
his back was broken through him. 

trdgr, truag, wretched, is trdg- limm, / am grieved. 

tromdae, troublesome. 

trom-gruin, g. tromgrona, heavy wounding. 

tromm, heavy. 

túath, g. tuaithe, f. people. 


túath, left, north, fo thuaid, northwards. Mod. Ir. 6 

tucht, form, fashion, in tucht-sa, in this fashion. 

tuchtach, shapely, comely. 

tuidecht, see do-tiag-. 

tuillem, g. tuillema, m. verb, noun of do-sli, enclit. -tuilli, 
ear/is, deserves, incurs {a penalty). Mod. Ir. tuill. 
tuillem écraite, to earn enmity (i.e. from the Ulstermen 
by slaying Cuchulinn). 

tulach, see telach. 

tus, beginning ; ar thus, at first. 

uacht (earlier dcht), g. úachta, cold. Mod. Ir. fuacht. 

úachtar (earlier dchter), g. úachtair, upper part, top. 

úainn, see d, úa. 

úallach, proud. 

úan, g. úain, m. lamb. 

úane, green. 

úar, cold. Mod. Ir. fuar. 

uare, see ore. 

úas, see ds. 

úath-bás, g. uathbáis, m. mortal terror; cf. conérbaltatar 
cét láech díb do úathbas ocus cridenes, so that a 
hundred warriors of the?n died of terror aitd heart* 
stroke (?) LU. 77638. 

uathed, commonly uathad (earlier dthad), g. uathaid, 11. a 
small number, unity ; in grammatical terminology the 
singular number. 

úathmaire, f. terribleness, abstract noun from úath-mar, 


ubull, n. apple, ubull mbrágat, the apple of the throat. 

ucht, g. ochta, bosom. 

Tide, n. jour?iey. 

uile, all; inflected like an adj., but in the pi. uli is used 
unchanged after prep, -f pron. leo huili, dóib uili, after 
an infixed pron. ar-un-taa uili, it remains for us all, 
and after a noun preceded by a possessive a taidchur 
huli, the return of them all. 

uisce, g. uisci, d. usciu, m. water. 

TJlaid, g. Ulad, Ulstermen. The pi. is also used to denote 
the province, e.g. la Ultu, in Ulster. 

ulchae, f. beard, ace. uilchi. 

úr, f. clay, soil. 

"urclior (also written aurchor, erchor, irchor), g. urchora, 
and urchair, a throw, a cast. 

-urthaitis ; ara n-urthaitis, that they should go. Cf. ortha, 

go, LU. 57^38, nrtliatar LL, 55^58, 57621. 


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